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Virginia's Eighth Grade Standards

Strand / Topic: World History and Geography to 1500 A.D.

  • WHI.1 Standard / Strand:

    The student will improve skills in historical research and geographical analysis by

      • WHI.1a) Indicator/Standard: Identifying, analyzing, and interpreting primary and secondary sources to make generalizations about events and life in world history to 1500 A.D.;
      • WHI.1b) Indicator/Standard: Using maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and interpret the past to 1500 A.D.;
      • WHI.1c) Indicator/Standard: Identifying major geographic features important to the study of world history to 1500 A.D.;
      • WHI.1d) Indicator/Standard: Identifying and comparing political boundaries with the location of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms from 4000 B.C. to 1500 A.D.;
      • WHI.1e) Indicator/Standard: Analyzing trends in human migration and cultural interaction from prehistory to 1500 A.D.
  • Standard / Strand: Era I—Human Origins and Early Civilizations, Prehistory to 1000 B.C.

    • WHI.2 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of early development of humankind from the Paleolithic Era to the agricultural revolution by

        • WHI.2a) Indicator: Explaining the impact of geographic environment on hunter-gatherer societies;
        • WHI.2b) Indicator: Listing characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies, including their use of tools and fire;
        • WHI.2c) Indicator: Describing technological and social advancements that gave rise to stable communities;
        • WHI.2d) Indicator: Explaining how archaeological discoveries are changing present-day knowledge of early peoples.
    • WHI.3 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient river valley civilizations, including Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus River Valley, and China and the civilizations of the Hebrews, Phoe

        • WHI.3a) Indicator: Locating these civilizations in time and place;
        • WHI.3b) Indicator: Describing the development of social, political, and economic patterns, including slavery;
        • WHI.3c) Indicator: Explaining the development of religious traditions;
        • WHI.3d) Indicator: Describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Judaism;
        • WHI.3e) Indicator: Explaining the development of language and writing.
    • WHI.4 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of the civilizations of Persia, India, and China in terms of chronology, geography, social structures, government, economy, rel

        • WHI.4a) Indicator: Describing Persia, with emphasis on the development of an imperial bureaucracy;
        • WHI.4b) Indicator: Describing India, with emphasis on the Aryan migrations and the caste system;
        • WHI.4c) Indicator: Describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Hinduism;
        • WHI.4d) Indicator: Describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Buddhism;
        • WHI.4e) Indicator: Describing China, with emphasis on the development of an empire and the construction of the Great Wall;
        • WHI.4f) Indicator: Describing the impact of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism.
    • WHI.5 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

        • WHI.5a) Indicator: Assessing the influence of geography on Greek economic, social, and political development, including the impact of Greek commerce and colonies;
        • WHI.5b) Indicator: Describing Greek mythology and religion;
        • WHI.5c) Indicator: Identifying the social structure and role of slavery, explaining the significance of citizenship and the development of democracy, and comparing the city-states of Athens and Sparta;
        • WHI.5d) Indicator: Evaluating the significance of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars;
        • WHI.5e) Indicator: Characterizing life in Athens during the Golden Age of Pericles;
        • WHI.5f) Indicator: Citing contributions in drama, poetry, history, sculpture, architecture, science, mathematics, and philosophy, with emphasis on Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle;
        • WHI.5g) Indicator: Explaining the conquest of Greece by Macedonia and the spread of Hellenistic culture by Alexander the Great.
    • WHI.6 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. to 500 A.D. in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

        • WHI.6a) Indicator: Assessing the influence of geography on Roman economic, social, and political development;
        • WHI.6b) Indicator: Describing Roman mythology and religion;
        • WHI.6c) Indicator: Explaining the social structure and role of slavery, significance of citizenship, and the development of democratic features in the government of the Roman Republic;
        • WHI.6d) Indicator: Sequencing events leading to Roman military domination of the Mediterranean basin and Western Europe and the spread of Roman culture in these areas;
        • WHI.6e) Indicator: Assessing the impact of military conquests on the army, economy, and social structure of Rome;
        • WHI.6f) Indicator: Assessing the roles of Julius and Augustus Caesar in the collapse of the Republic and the rise of imperial monarchs;
        • WHI.6g) Indicator: Explaining the economic, social, and political impact of the Pax Romana;
        • WHI.6h) Indicator: Describing the origin, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Christianity;
        • WHI.6i) Indicator: Explaining the development and significance of the Church in the late Roman Empire;
        • WHI.6j) Indicator: Listing contributions in art and architecture, technology and science, medicine, literature and history, language, religious institutions, and law;
        • WHI.6k) Indicator: Citing the reasons for the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire.
    • WHI.7 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. by

        • WHI.7a) Indicator: Explaining the establishment of Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire;
        • WHI.7b) Indicator: Identifying Justinian and his contributions, including the codification of Roman law, and describing the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and economy;
        • WHI.7c) Indicator: Characterizing Byzantine art and architecture and the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions;
        • WHI.7d) Indicator: Explaining disputes that led to the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church;
        • WHI.7e) Indicator: Assessing the impact of Byzantine influence and trade on Russia and Eastern Europe.
    • WHI.8 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of Islamic civilization from about 600 to 1000 A.D. by

        • WHI.8a) Indicator: Describing the origin, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Islam;
        • WHI.8b) Indicator: Assessing the influence of geography on Islamic economic, social, and political development, including the impact of conquest and trade;
        • WHI.8c) Indicator: Identifying historical turning points that affected the spread and influence of Islamic civilization, with emphasis on the Sunni-Shi'a division and the Battle of Tours;
        • WHI.8d) Indicator: Citing cultural and scientific contributions and achievements of Islamic civilization.
    • WHI.9 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of Western Europe during the Middle Ages from about 500 to 1000 A.D. in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

        • WHI.9a) Indicator: Sequencing events related to the spread and influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church throughout Europe;
        • WHI.9b) Indicator: Explaining the structure of feudal society and its economic, social, and political effects;
        • WHI.9c) Indicator: Explaining the rise of Frankish kings, the Age of Charlemagne, and the revival of the idea of the Roman Empire;
        • WHI.9d) Indicator: Sequencing events related to the invasions, settlements, and influence of migratory groups, including Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings.
    • WHI.10 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of civilizations and empires of the Eastern Hemisphere and their interactions through regional trade patterns by

        • WHI.10a) Indicator: Locating major trade routes;
        • WHI.10b) Indicator: Identifying technological advances and transfers, networks of economic interdependence, and cultural interactions;
        • WHI.10c) Indicator: Describing Japan, with emphasis on the impact of Shinto and Buddhist traditions and the influence of Chinese culture;
        • WHI.10d) Indicator: Describing east African kingdoms of Axum and Zimbabwe and west African civilizations of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in terms of geography, society, economy, and religion.
    • WHI.11 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of major civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, including the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan, by

        • WHI.11a) Indicator: Describing geographic relationship, with emphasis on patterns of development in terms of climate and physical features;
        • WHI.11b) Indicator: Describing cultural patterns and political and economic structures.
    • WHI.12 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of social, economic, and political changes and cultural achievements in the late medieval period by

        • WHI.12a) Indicator: Describing the emergence of nation-states (England, France, Spain, and Russia) and distinctive political developments in each;
        • WHI.12b) Indicator: Explaining conflicts among Eurasian powers, including the Crusades, the Mongol conquests, and the fall of Constantinople;
        • WHI.12c) Indicator: Identifying patterns of crisis and recovery related to the Black Death;
        • WHI.12d) Indicator: Explaining the preservation and transfer to Western Europe of Greek, Roman, and Arabic philosophy, medicine, and science.
    • WHI.13 Indicator/Standard:

      The student will demonstrate knowledge of developments leading to the Renaissance in Europe in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

        • WHI.13a) Indicator: Identifying the economic foundations of the Renaissance;
        • WHI.13b) Indicator: Sequencing events related to the rise of Italian city-states and their political development, including Machiavelli's theory of governing as described in The Prince;
        • WHI.13c) Indicator: Citing artistic, literary, and philosophical creativity, as contrasted with the medieval period, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Petrarch;
        • WHI.13d) Indicator: Comparing the Italian and the Northern Renaissance, and citing the contributions of writers.
 
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