Vermont's Second Grade Standards
(Note: By the completion of second grade, Vermont students are expected to master the following standards.)
Vermont Academic Content Standards: History and Social Sciences
H&SS1-2:1—Social and Historical Questioning
Students initiate an inquiry by:
- Asking questions based on what they have seen, what they have read, what they have listened to, and/or what they have researched as a class (e.g., How is living in Vermont different than living in Florida?).
Students develop a hypothesis, thesis, or research statement by:
- Using prior knowledge to share ideas about possible answers to questions (e.g., How do people use teamwork to get jobs done?).
Students design research by:
- Identifying resources for finding answers to their questions (e.g., books, videos, people, and the Internet).
- Explaining what their jobs will be during an inquiry investigation (e.g., drawing pictures after a field trip).
- Planning how to organize information so it can be shared.
Students conduct research by:
- Following directions to complete an inquiry.
- Asking questions and observing during the investigation process.
- Recording observations with words, numbers, symbols, and/or pictures (e.g., drawing or labeling a diagram, creating a title for a drawing or diagram, recording data provided by the teacher in a table).
Students develop reasonable explanations that support the research statement by:
- Organizing and displaying information (e.g., pictograph, bar graph, chart, building blocks).
- Classifying information and justifying groupings based on observations, prior knowledge, or experience.
Students make connections to research by:
- Discussing if their findings answered their research question.
- Proposing solutions to problems and asking other questions.
Students communicate their findings by:
- Speaking, using pictures, (including captions) or creating a simple report or “painted essay” containing a focus statement, details, and conclusions.
Students connect the past with the present by:
- Classifying objects from long ago and today (e.g., sorting pictures or objects into two groups: “long ago” and “today”).
- Exploring objects and looking closely at similarities, differences, patterns, and change.
- Describing ways that school life has both changed and stayed the same over time (e.g., a one-room schoolhouse vs. modern schools).
- Identifying how events and people have shaped their schools or towns (e.g., How does life change when one moves to a different town?).
Students show understanding of how humans interpret history by:
- Collecting information about the past (e.g., through interviews, photos and artifacts).
- Differentiating among fact, opinion, and interpretation of classroom situations, stories, and other media.
Students show understanding of past, present, and future time by:
- Placing events that occurred within the school or community setting in their correct sequence.
- Constructing a time line of events in the history of their own or another family, or of the school or community.
- Measuring calendar time by days, weeks, and months (e.g., How old are you?).
- Identifying an important event in their lives and/or schools, and discussing changes that resulted (e.g., after the new baby arrived, I had to share a bedroom with my sister).
Physical and Cultural Geography
Students interpret geography and solve geographic problems by:
- Writing their names and addresses.
- Identifying characteristics of a neighborhood or community using resources such as road signs, landmarks, models, maps, photographs and mental mapping
- Differentiating between neighborhood, town, and state.
- Identifying the locations of places within the community on a prepared map, and suggesting why particular locations are used for certain human activities (e.g., parks, school, shops, etc.).
- Identifying a map or globe and using terms related to location, direction, and distance (e.g., up/down, left/right, near/far, here/there, north, south, east, west).
- Using a simple map to find something (e.g., locating the teacher’s desk on a map of their classrooms).
- Creating a map as a representation of a space (e.g., making a map of the playground, drawing a treasure map).
- Identifying and using basic elements of the map (e.g., cardinal directions and key).
- Using appropriate geographic resources (e.g., aerial photos) to answer geographic questions.
Students show understanding of human interaction with the environment over time by:
- Identifying ways in which they and people in the community take care of or hurt the environment (e.g., after identifying litter in the local area, discussing why the trash is there and giving suggestions about how the problem can be helped).
- Participating in taking care of the environment (e.g., gardening, recycling).
- Identifying ways in which people in their community adapt to their physical environment, and discussing how these adaptations have both positive and negative effects.
- Recognizing reasons why friends and family move (e.g., climate, job opportunities, family ties).
Students analyze how and why cultures continue and change over time by:
- Identifying ways culture is expressed in their communities, such as celebrations, legends, and traditions.
- Describing the contributions of various cultural groups to the community.
Civics, Government and Society
Students act as citizens by:
- Describing what it means to be a responsible member of a group.
- Describing what his/her role is as a member of various groups.
- Demonstrating positive interaction with group members (e.g., working with a partner to complete a task).
- Explaining their own point of view on issues that affect themselves.
- Participating in setting and following the rules of the group, school, community.
Students show understanding of various forms of government by:
- Identifying rules or laws that solve a specific problem or apply to a specific situation (e.g., raising hands, crossing at the light, wearing bike helmet).
- Explaining why rules and laws are written down.
- Identifying the consequences of not following rules or laws.
- Describing characteristics of good leadership and fair decision-making and how that affects others (e.g., line leader, team captain).
Students examine how different societies address issues of human interdependence by:
- Explaining that people have rights and needs (e.g. fairness, safety).
- Identifying how the groups to which a person belongs (family, friends, team, community) influence how she or he thinks and acts.
- Defining their own rights and needs—and the rights and needs of others—in the classroom, school, and playground (e.g., “I” statements, learning to be assertive, taking care of yourself).
- Giving examples of ways that she or he is similar to and different from others (e.g., gender, eye color, hair color, skin color, likes and dislikes, etc.).
- Identifying examples of interdependence among individuals and groups (e.g., family, sports team).
- Practicing communication skills with individuals and groups.
- Describing feelings and situations that might lead to conflict (e.g., fighting over being first in line).
- Describing ways that people solve problems.
Students examine how access to various institutions affects justice, reward, and power by:
- Identifying ways in which local institutions promote the common good (e.g., police enforce rules and laws, fire department, ambulances).
Students show an understanding of the interaction/interdependence between humans, the environment, and the economy by:
- Participating in activities as a buyer or seller (e.g., bake sale, school store), and discussing where goods come from (e.g., clothing, toys, foods).
- Identifying economic activities that use resources in the local region (e.g., maple syrup production, logging).
- Identifying jobs people do in the community, and the value these jobs bring to the community (e.g., road crews help keep people safe while driving).
Students show understanding of the interconnectedness between government and the economy by:
- Identifying some goods and services that are provided by the local government (e.g., schools, parks, police, fire protection).
Students make economic decisions as a consumer, producer, saver, investor, and citizen by:
- Recognizing the differences between the basic needs and wants (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, and affection vs. toys and sweets).
- Explaining why people earn, spend, and save.