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Vermont's Twelfth Grade Standards

  • VT.6.1. Standard: Critical Evaluation Causes and Effects in Human Societies: Students examine complex webs of causes and effects in relations to events in order to generalize about the workings of human societies, and they apply their findings to problems.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Social and Historical Questioning: Students initiate an inquiry by:
      • 11-12:1.a. Grade Level Expectation: Asking focusing, probing, and significant research questions that incorporate ideas and concepts of personal, community, or global relevance and could lead to answers which allow students to become participants in solutions (e.g., Does my purchasing behavior affect child labor practices in the developing world?).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Hypothesis/Research Statement: Students develop a hypothesis, thesis, or research statement by:
      • 11-12:2.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting results, proposing choices about possible actions, or interpreting relationships between facts and/or concepts.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Research Plan: Students design research by:
      • 11-12:3.a. Grade Level Expectation: Establishing criteria for the quality and quantity of information needed, including primary and secondary sources.
      • 11-12:3.b. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying tools and procedures needed for collecting, managing, and analyzing data, including a plan for citing sources (e.g., establishing a time line or schedule for research, independently identifying places to find sources).
      • 11-12:3.c. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the best ways to present their data (e.g., PowerPoint, hypercard, report, graph, etc.).
      • 11-12:3.d. Grade Level Expectation: Determining ways research plan can be applied to other areas (e.g., to future career goals)
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students conduct research by:
      • 11-12:4.a. Grade Level Expectation: Referring to and following a detailed plan for a complex inquiry (e.g., conduct an inquiry into the several causes of WWI).
      • 11-12:4.b. Grade Level Expectation: Locating relevant materials such as print, electronic, and human resources.
      • 11-12:4.c. Grade Level Expectation: Applying criteria from the plan to analyze the quality and quantity of and corroborate the information gathered (e.g., judging the accuracy of historical fiction by comparing the characters and events described with accounts in multiple primary and secondary sources).
      • 11-12:4.d. Grade Level Expectation: Describing evidence and recording observations using notecards, videotape, tape recorders, journals, or databases.
      • 11-12:4.e. Grade Level Expectation: Revising research plan and locating additional materials and/or information, as needed.
      • 11-12:4.f. Grade Level Expectation: Citing sources.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students develop reasonable explanations that support the research statement by:
      • 11-12:5.a. Grade Level Expectation: Organizing and displaying information in a manner appropriate to the research statement through maps, graphs, charts, tables, narratives, timelines, models, simulations, or dramatizations.
      • 11-12:5.b. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the validity and reliability of the document or information in relation to an analysis of the hypothesis.
      • 11-12:5.c. Grade Level Expectation: Choosing and using appropriate methods for interpreting information, such as comparing and contrasting, summarizing, illustrating, generalizing, sequencing, synthesizing, analyzing, inferring, deducing, and/or justifying.
      • 11-12:5.d. Grade Level Expectation: Revising explanation as necessary based on personal reflection, peer critique, expert opinion, etc.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students make connections to research by:
      • 11-12:6.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting and/or recommending how conclusions can be applied to other civic, economic or social issues.
      • 11-12:6.b. Grade Level Expectation: Using research results to support or refute the original research statement.
      • 11-12:6.c. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing solutions to problems based on findings, and asking additional questions.
      • 11-12:6.d. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying problems or flaws with the research process and suggesting improvements.
      • 11-12:6.e. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing further investigations.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students communicate their findings by:
      • 11-12:7.a. Grade Level Expectation: Developing and giving presentations for various audiences.
      • 11-12:7.b. Grade Level Expectation: Soliciting and responding to feedback.
      • 11-12:7.c. Grade Level Expectation: Pointing out possibilities for continued or further research.
  • VT.6.2. Standard: Critical Evaluation Uses of Evidence and Data: Students understand the varied uses of evidence and data, and use both to make interpretations concerning public issues.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Social and Historical Questioning: Students initiate an inquiry by:
      • 11-12:1.a. Grade Level Expectation: Asking focusing, probing, and significant research questions that incorporate ideas and concepts of personal, community, or global relevance and could lead to answers which allow students to become participants in solutions (e.g., Does my purchasing behavior affect child labor practices in the developing world?).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Hypothesis/Research Statement: Students develop a hypothesis, thesis, or research statement by:
      • 11-12:2.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting results, proposing choices about possible actions, or interpreting relationships between facts and/or concepts.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Research Plan: Students design research by:
      • 11-12:3.a. Grade Level Expectation: Establishing criteria for the quality and quantity of information needed, including primary and secondary sources.
      • 11-12:3.b. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying tools and procedures needed for collecting, managing, and analyzing data, including a plan for citing sources (e.g., establishing a time line or schedule for research, independently identifying places to find sources).
      • 11-12:3.c. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the best ways to present their data (e.g., PowerPoint, hypercard, report, graph, etc.).
      • 11-12:3.d. Grade Level Expectation: Determining ways research plan can be applied to other areas (e.g., to future career goals)
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students conduct research by:
      • 11-12:4.a. Grade Level Expectation: Referring to and following a detailed plan for a complex inquiry (e.g., conduct an inquiry into the several causes of WWI).
      • 11-12:4.b. Grade Level Expectation: Locating relevant materials such as print, electronic, and human resources.
      • 11-12:4.c. Grade Level Expectation: Applying criteria from the plan to analyze the quality and quantity of and corroborate the information gathered (e.g., judging the accuracy of historical fiction by comparing the characters and events described with accounts in multiple primary and secondary sources).
      • 11-12:4.d. Grade Level Expectation: Describing evidence and recording observations using notecards, videotape, tape recorders, journals, or databases.
      • 11-12:4.e. Grade Level Expectation: Revising research plan and locating additional materials and/or information, as needed.
      • 11-12:4.f. Grade Level Expectation: Citing sources.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students develop reasonable explanations that support the research statement by:
      • 11-12:5.a. Grade Level Expectation: Organizing and displaying information in a manner appropriate to the research statement through maps, graphs, charts, tables, narratives, timelines, models, simulations, or dramatizations.
      • 11-12:5.b. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the validity and reliability of the document or information in relation to an analysis of the hypothesis.
      • 11-12:5.c. Grade Level Expectation: Choosing and using appropriate methods for interpreting information, such as comparing and contrasting, summarizing, illustrating, generalizing, sequencing, synthesizing, analyzing, inferring, deducing, and/or justifying.
      • 11-12:5.d. Grade Level Expectation: Revising explanation as necessary based on personal reflection, peer critique, expert opinion, etc.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students make connections to research by:
      • 11-12:6.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting and/or recommending how conclusions can be applied to other civic, economic or social issues.
      • 11-12:6.b. Grade Level Expectation: Using research results to support or refute the original research statement.
      • 11-12:6.c. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing solutions to problems based on findings, and asking additional questions.
      • 11-12:6.d. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying problems or flaws with the research process and suggesting improvements.
      • 11-12:6.e. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing further investigations.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students communicate their findings by:
      • 11-12:7.a. Grade Level Expectation: Developing and giving presentations for various audiences.
      • 11-12:7.b. Grade Level Expectation: Soliciting and responding to feedback.
      • 11-12:7.c. Grade Level Expectation: Pointing out possibilities for continued or further research.
  • VT.6.3. Standard: Critical Evaluation Analyzing Knowledge: Students analyze knowledge as a collection of selected facts and interpretations based on a particular historical or social setting.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Social and Historical Questioning: Students initiate an inquiry by:
      • 11-12:1.a. Grade Level Expectation: Asking focusing, probing, and significant research questions that incorporate ideas and concepts of personal, community, or global relevance and could lead to answers which allow students to become participants in solutions (e.g., Does my purchasing behavior affect child labor practices in the developing world?).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Hypothesis/Research Statement: Students develop a hypothesis, thesis, or research statement by:
      • 11-12:2.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting results, proposing choices about possible actions, or interpreting relationships between facts and/or concepts.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Research Plan: Students design research by:
      • 11-12:3.a. Grade Level Expectation: Establishing criteria for the quality and quantity of information needed, including primary and secondary sources.
      • 11-12:3.b. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying tools and procedures needed for collecting, managing, and analyzing data, including a plan for citing sources (e.g., establishing a time line or schedule for research, independently identifying places to find sources).
      • 11-12:3.c. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the best ways to present their data (e.g., PowerPoint, hypercard, report, graph, etc.).
      • 11-12:3.d. Grade Level Expectation: Determining ways research plan can be applied to other areas (e.g., to future career goals)
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students conduct research by:
      • 11-12:4.a. Grade Level Expectation: Referring to and following a detailed plan for a complex inquiry (e.g., conduct an inquiry into the several causes of WWI).
      • 11-12:4.b. Grade Level Expectation: Locating relevant materials such as print, electronic, and human resources.
      • 11-12:4.c. Grade Level Expectation: Applying criteria from the plan to analyze the quality and quantity of and corroborate the information gathered (e.g., judging the accuracy of historical fiction by comparing the characters and events described with accounts in multiple primary and secondary sources).
      • 11-12:4.d. Grade Level Expectation: Describing evidence and recording observations using notecards, videotape, tape recorders, journals, or databases.
      • 11-12:4.e. Grade Level Expectation: Revising research plan and locating additional materials and/or information, as needed.
      • 11-12:4.f. Grade Level Expectation: Citing sources.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students develop reasonable explanations that support the research statement by:
      • 11-12:5.a. Grade Level Expectation: Organizing and displaying information in a manner appropriate to the research statement through maps, graphs, charts, tables, narratives, timelines, models, simulations, or dramatizations.
      • 11-12:5.b. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the validity and reliability of the document or information in relation to an analysis of the hypothesis.
      • 11-12:5.c. Grade Level Expectation: Choosing and using appropriate methods for interpreting information, such as comparing and contrasting, summarizing, illustrating, generalizing, sequencing, synthesizing, analyzing, inferring, deducing, and/or justifying.
      • 11-12:5.d. Grade Level Expectation: Revising explanation as necessary based on personal reflection, peer critique, expert opinion, etc.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students make connections to research by:
      • 11-12:6.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting and/or recommending how conclusions can be applied to other civic, economic or social issues.
      • 11-12:6.b. Grade Level Expectation: Using research results to support or refute the original research statement.
      • 11-12:6.c. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing solutions to problems based on findings, and asking additional questions.
      • 11-12:6.d. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying problems or flaws with the research process and suggesting improvements.
      • 11-12:6.e. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing further investigations.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students communicate their findings by:
      • 11-12:7.a. Grade Level Expectation: Developing and giving presentations for various audiences.
      • 11-12:7.b. Grade Level Expectation: Soliciting and responding to feedback.
      • 11-12:7.c. Grade Level Expectation: Pointing out possibilities for continued or further research.
  • VT.6.4. Standard: History Historical Connections: Students identify major historical eras and analyze periods of transition in various times in their local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide, to interpret the influence of the past on the present.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Social and Historical Questioning: Students initiate an inquiry by:
      • 11-12:1.a. Grade Level Expectation: Asking focusing, probing, and significant research questions that incorporate ideas and concepts of personal, community, or global relevance and could lead to answers which allow students to become participants in solutions (e.g., Does my purchasing behavior affect child labor practices in the developing world?).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Hypothesis/Research Statement: Students develop a hypothesis, thesis, or research statement by:
      • 11-12:2.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting results, proposing choices about possible actions, or interpreting relationships between facts and/or concepts.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Research Plan: Students design research by:
      • 11-12:3.a. Grade Level Expectation: Establishing criteria for the quality and quantity of information needed, including primary and secondary sources.
      • 11-12:3.b. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying tools and procedures needed for collecting, managing, and analyzing data, including a plan for citing sources (e.g., establishing a time line or schedule for research, independently identifying places to find sources).
      • 11-12:3.c. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the best ways to present their data (e.g., PowerPoint, hypercard, report, graph, etc.).
      • 11-12:3.d. Grade Level Expectation: Determining ways research plan can be applied to other areas (e.g., to future career goals)
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students conduct research by:
      • 11-12:4.a. Grade Level Expectation: Referring to and following a detailed plan for a complex inquiry (e.g., conduct an inquiry into the several causes of WWI).
      • 11-12:4.b. Grade Level Expectation: Locating relevant materials such as print, electronic, and human resources.
      • 11-12:4.c. Grade Level Expectation: Applying criteria from the plan to analyze the quality and quantity of and corroborate the information gathered (e.g., judging the accuracy of historical fiction by comparing the characters and events described with accounts in multiple primary and secondary sources).
      • 11-12:4.d. Grade Level Expectation: Describing evidence and recording observations using notecards, videotape, tape recorders, journals, or databases.
      • 11-12:4.e. Grade Level Expectation: Revising research plan and locating additional materials and/or information, as needed.
      • 11-12:4.f. Grade Level Expectation: Citing sources.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students develop reasonable explanations that support the research statement by:
      • 11-12:5.a. Grade Level Expectation: Organizing and displaying information in a manner appropriate to the research statement through maps, graphs, charts, tables, narratives, timelines, models, simulations, or dramatizations.
      • 11-12:5.b. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the validity and reliability of the document or information in relation to an analysis of the hypothesis.
      • 11-12:5.c. Grade Level Expectation: Choosing and using appropriate methods for interpreting information, such as comparing and contrasting, summarizing, illustrating, generalizing, sequencing, synthesizing, analyzing, inferring, deducing, and/or justifying.
      • 11-12:5.d. Grade Level Expectation: Revising explanation as necessary based on personal reflection, peer critique, expert opinion, etc.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students make connections to research by:
      • 11-12:6.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting and/or recommending how conclusions can be applied to other civic, economic or social issues.
      • 11-12:6.b. Grade Level Expectation: Using research results to support or refute the original research statement.
      • 11-12:6.c. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing solutions to problems based on findings, and asking additional questions.
      • 11-12:6.d. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying problems or flaws with the research process and suggesting improvements.
      • 11-12:6.e. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing further investigations.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students communicate their findings by:
      • 11-12:7.a. Grade Level Expectation: Developing and giving presentations for various audiences.
      • 11-12:7.b. Grade Level Expectation: Soliciting and responding to feedback.
      • 11-12:7.c. Grade Level Expectation: Pointing out possibilities for continued or further research.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students connect the past with the present by:
      • 11-12:8.a. Grade Level Expectation: Explaining historical origins of key ideas and concepts (e.g., Enlightenment, Manifest Destiny, religious and governmental philosophies) and how they are reinterpreted over time.
      • 11-12:8.b. Grade Level Expectation: Assessing how lifestyles and values have undergone dramatic changes in the U.S. and world (e.g., comparing life in China under the early imperial dynasties to present -day life, and assessing the degree of similarity and difference).
      • 11-12:8.c. Grade Level Expectation: Hypothesizing how critical events could have had different outcomes.
      • 11-12:8.d. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting possible outcomes of current world events, and supporting these predictions.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of how humans interpret history by:
      • 11-12:9.a. Grade Level Expectation: Locating appropriate primary and secondary sources in order to find evidence to support his or her hypothesis.
      • 11-12:9.b. Grade Level Expectation: Reading and interpreting historic maps, and evaluating bias in these maps (e.g., size of African on European-made maps).
      • 11-12:9.c. Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the credibility of differing accounts of the same event(s), and recognizing any existing bias in their own writing about historical events (e.g., comparing accounts of an event in history textbook written in the early 1900s to the same account described in a more recent history text).
      • 11-12:9.d. Grade Level Expectation: Recognizing media bias in the interpretation of world events, past and present (e.g., World War II propaganda).
      • 11-12:9.e. Grade Level Expectation: Using technology to interpret history (e.g., using technology to access and interpret historical data ).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of past, present, and future time by:
      • 11-12:10.a Grade Level Expectation: Creating a historical narrative.
      • 11-12:10.b Grade Level Expectation: Locating relevant data for constructing a time line, and constructing time lines of significant historical developments in the nation and world, designating appropriate equidistant intervals of time and recording events according to the order in which they occurred.
      • 11-12:10.c Grade Level Expectation: Identifying how different cultures organize time according to key historical events (e.g., independence days, commemoration of past).
      • 11-12:10.d Grade Level Expectation: Interpreting data presented in time lines.
      • 11-12:10.e Grade Level Expectation: Measuring and calculating calendar time by days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries, and millennia.
      • 11-12:10.f Grade Level Expectation: Understanding a variety of calendars (e.g., Islamic, Jewish, Chinese) and reasons for their organizational structures (e.g., political, historic, religious).
      • 11-12:10.g Grade Level Expectation: Making predictions, decisions, or taking a public stand on a defensible position based on an understanding of the past and present.
      • 11-12:10.h Grade Level Expectation: Explaining why certain key events remain the historic consciousness and others do not (e.g., the role of Pilgrims in 1628).
      • 11-12:10.i Grade Level Expectation: Explaining transitions between eras that occurred over time as well as those that occurred as a result of a pivotal event, and evaluating the effects of these transitions (e.g., What factors led to various democratic revolutions? What have been the long-term effects of these revolutions?).
      • 11-12:10.j Grade Level Expectation: Identifying why certain events are considered pivotal and how they cause us to reorder time (e.g., Muhammad's call to prophecy, the collapse of the Soviet Union).
  • VT.6.5. Standard: History Traditional and Social Histories: Students investigate both the traditional and the social histories of the people, places, and cultures under study, including those of indigenous peoples.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students connect the past with the present by:
      • 11-12:8.a. Grade Level Expectation: Explaining historical origins of key ideas and concepts (e.g., Enlightenment, Manifest Destiny, religious and governmental philosophies) and how they are reinterpreted over time.
      • 11-12:8.b. Grade Level Expectation: Assessing how lifestyles and values have undergone dramatic changes in the U.S. and world (e.g., comparing life in China under the early imperial dynasties to present -day life, and assessing the degree of similarity and difference).
      • 11-12:8.c. Grade Level Expectation: Hypothesizing how critical events could have had different outcomes.
      • 11-12:8.d. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting possible outcomes of current world events, and supporting these predictions.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of how humans interpret history by:
      • 11-12:9.a. Grade Level Expectation: Locating appropriate primary and secondary sources in order to find evidence to support his or her hypothesis.
      • 11-12:9.b. Grade Level Expectation: Reading and interpreting historic maps, and evaluating bias in these maps (e.g., size of African on European-made maps).
      • 11-12:9.c. Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the credibility of differing accounts of the same event(s), and recognizing any existing bias in their own writing about historical events (e.g., comparing accounts of an event in history textbook written in the early 1900s to the same account described in a more recent history text).
      • 11-12:9.d. Grade Level Expectation: Recognizing media bias in the interpretation of world events, past and present (e.g., World War II propaganda).
      • 11-12:9.e. Grade Level Expectation: Using technology to interpret history (e.g., using technology to access and interpret historical data ).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of past, present, and future time by:
      • 11-12:10.a Grade Level Expectation: Creating a historical narrative.
      • 11-12:10.b Grade Level Expectation: Locating relevant data for constructing a time line, and constructing time lines of significant historical developments in the nation and world, designating appropriate equidistant intervals of time and recording events according to the order in which they occurred.
      • 11-12:10.c Grade Level Expectation: Identifying how different cultures organize time according to key historical events (e.g., independence days, commemoration of past).
      • 11-12:10.d Grade Level Expectation: Interpreting data presented in time lines.
      • 11-12:10.e Grade Level Expectation: Measuring and calculating calendar time by days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries, and millennia.
      • 11-12:10.f Grade Level Expectation: Understanding a variety of calendars (e.g., Islamic, Jewish, Chinese) and reasons for their organizational structures (e.g., political, historic, religious).
      • 11-12:10.g Grade Level Expectation: Making predictions, decisions, or taking a public stand on a defensible position based on an understanding of the past and present.
      • 11-12:10.h Grade Level Expectation: Explaining why certain key events remain the historic consciousness and others do not (e.g., the role of Pilgrims in 1628).
      • 11-12:10.i Grade Level Expectation: Explaining transitions between eras that occurred over time as well as those that occurred as a result of a pivotal event, and evaluating the effects of these transitions (e.g., What factors led to various democratic revolutions? What have been the long-term effects of these revolutions?).
      • 11-12:10.j Grade Level Expectation: Identifying why certain events are considered pivotal and how they cause us to reorder time (e.g., Muhammad's call to prophecy, the collapse of the Soviet Union).
  • VT.6.6. Standard: History Being A Historian: Students use historical methodology to make interpretations concerning history, change, and continuity.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Social and Historical Questioning: Students initiate an inquiry by:
      • 11-12:1.a. Grade Level Expectation: Asking focusing, probing, and significant research questions that incorporate ideas and concepts of personal, community, or global relevance and could lead to answers which allow students to become participants in solutions (e.g., Does my purchasing behavior affect child labor practices in the developing world?).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Hypothesis/Research Statement: Students develop a hypothesis, thesis, or research statement by:
      • 11-12:2.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting results, proposing choices about possible actions, or interpreting relationships between facts and/or concepts.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Research Plan: Students design research by:
      • 11-12:3.a. Grade Level Expectation: Establishing criteria for the quality and quantity of information needed, including primary and secondary sources.
      • 11-12:3.b. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying tools and procedures needed for collecting, managing, and analyzing data, including a plan for citing sources (e.g., establishing a time line or schedule for research, independently identifying places to find sources).
      • 11-12:3.c. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the best ways to present their data (e.g., PowerPoint, hypercard, report, graph, etc.).
      • 11-12:3.d. Grade Level Expectation: Determining ways research plan can be applied to other areas (e.g., to future career goals)
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students conduct research by:
      • 11-12:4.a. Grade Level Expectation: Referring to and following a detailed plan for a complex inquiry (e.g., conduct an inquiry into the several causes of WWI).
      • 11-12:4.b. Grade Level Expectation: Locating relevant materials such as print, electronic, and human resources.
      • 11-12:4.c. Grade Level Expectation: Applying criteria from the plan to analyze the quality and quantity of and corroborate the information gathered (e.g., judging the accuracy of historical fiction by comparing the characters and events described with accounts in multiple primary and secondary sources).
      • 11-12:4.d. Grade Level Expectation: Describing evidence and recording observations using notecards, videotape, tape recorders, journals, or databases.
      • 11-12:4.e. Grade Level Expectation: Revising research plan and locating additional materials and/or information, as needed.
      • 11-12:4.f. Grade Level Expectation: Citing sources.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Conducting Research: Students develop reasonable explanations that support the research statement by:
      • 11-12:5.a. Grade Level Expectation: Organizing and displaying information in a manner appropriate to the research statement through maps, graphs, charts, tables, narratives, timelines, models, simulations, or dramatizations.
      • 11-12:5.b. Grade Level Expectation: Determining the validity and reliability of the document or information in relation to an analysis of the hypothesis.
      • 11-12:5.c. Grade Level Expectation: Choosing and using appropriate methods for interpreting information, such as comparing and contrasting, summarizing, illustrating, generalizing, sequencing, synthesizing, analyzing, inferring, deducing, and/or justifying.
      • 11-12:5.d. Grade Level Expectation: Revising explanation as necessary based on personal reflection, peer critique, expert opinion, etc.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students make connections to research by:
      • 11-12:6.a. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting and/or recommending how conclusions can be applied to other civic, economic or social issues.
      • 11-12:6.b. Grade Level Expectation: Using research results to support or refute the original research statement.
      • 11-12:6.c. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing solutions to problems based on findings, and asking additional questions.
      • 11-12:6.d. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying problems or flaws with the research process and suggesting improvements.
      • 11-12:6.e. Grade Level Expectation: Proposing further investigations.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students communicate their findings by:
      • 11-12:7.a. Grade Level Expectation: Developing and giving presentations for various audiences.
      • 11-12:7.b. Grade Level Expectation: Soliciting and responding to feedback.
      • 11-12:7.c. Grade Level Expectation: Pointing out possibilities for continued or further research.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students connect the past with the present by:
      • 11-12:8.a. Grade Level Expectation: Explaining historical origins of key ideas and concepts (e.g., Enlightenment, Manifest Destiny, religious and governmental philosophies) and how they are reinterpreted over time.
      • 11-12:8.b. Grade Level Expectation: Assessing how lifestyles and values have undergone dramatic changes in the U.S. and world (e.g., comparing life in China under the early imperial dynasties to present -day life, and assessing the degree of similarity and difference).
      • 11-12:8.c. Grade Level Expectation: Hypothesizing how critical events could have had different outcomes.
      • 11-12:8.d. Grade Level Expectation: Predicting possible outcomes of current world events, and supporting these predictions.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of how humans interpret history by:
      • 11-12:9.a. Grade Level Expectation: Locating appropriate primary and secondary sources in order to find evidence to support his or her hypothesis.
      • 11-12:9.b. Grade Level Expectation: Reading and interpreting historic maps, and evaluating bias in these maps (e.g., size of African on European-made maps).
      • 11-12:9.c. Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the credibility of differing accounts of the same event(s), and recognizing any existing bias in their own writing about historical events (e.g., comparing accounts of an event in history textbook written in the early 1900s to the same account described in a more recent history text).
      • 11-12:9.d. Grade Level Expectation: Recognizing media bias in the interpretation of world events, past and present (e.g., World War II propaganda).
      • 11-12:9.e. Grade Level Expectation: Using technology to interpret history (e.g., using technology to access and interpret historical data ).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of past, present, and future time by:
      • 11-12:10.a Grade Level Expectation: Creating a historical narrative.
      • 11-12:10.b Grade Level Expectation: Locating relevant data for constructing a time line, and constructing time lines of significant historical developments in the nation and world, designating appropriate equidistant intervals of time and recording events according to the order in which they occurred.
      • 11-12:10.c Grade Level Expectation: Identifying how different cultures organize time according to key historical events (e.g., independence days, commemoration of past).
      • 11-12:10.d Grade Level Expectation: Interpreting data presented in time lines.
      • 11-12:10.e Grade Level Expectation: Measuring and calculating calendar time by days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries, and millennia.
      • 11-12:10.f Grade Level Expectation: Understanding a variety of calendars (e.g., Islamic, Jewish, Chinese) and reasons for their organizational structures (e.g., political, historic, religious).
      • 11-12:10.g Grade Level Expectation: Making predictions, decisions, or taking a public stand on a defensible position based on an understanding of the past and present.
      • 11-12:10.h Grade Level Expectation: Explaining why certain key events remain the historic consciousness and others do not (e.g., the role of Pilgrims in 1628).
      • 11-12:10.i Grade Level Expectation: Explaining transitions between eras that occurred over time as well as those that occurred as a result of a pivotal event, and evaluating the effects of these transitions (e.g., What factors led to various democratic revolutions? What have been the long-term effects of these revolutions?).
      • 11-12:10.j Grade Level Expectation: Identifying why certain events are considered pivotal and how they cause us to reorder time (e.g., Muhammad's call to prophecy, the collapse of the Soviet Union).
  • VT.6.7. Standard: Geography Geographical Knowledge: Students use geographical knowledge and images of various places to understand the present, communicate historical interpretations, develop solutions for problems, and plan for the future.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students interpret geography and solve geographic problems by:
      • 11-12:11.a Grade Level Expectation: Identifying characteristics of states, countries, and continents; synthesizing and evaluating characteristics of various areas in relation to a particular variable (e.g., quality of life, economic opportunity, desirability).
      • 11-12:11.b Grade Level Expectation: Observing, comparing, and analyzing patterns of national, and global land use over time (e.g., agriculture, forestry, industry) to understand why particular locations are used for certain human activities; speculating as to which areas might be used in the future and the impact of that usage.
      • 11-12:11.c Grade Level Expectation: Locating the physical, political, and cultural regions the United States and the world; hypothesizing the effects of current trends on these regions (e.g., the dominance of English as an international language).
      • 11-12:11.d Grade Level Expectation: Predicting areas of the world that will increase in future importance and giving reasons to support this prediction.
      • 11-12:11.e Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how technological and environmental changes impact settlement patterns over time (e.g., using tables and maps to show the distribution of refugees from areas affected by natural disasters).
      • 11-12:11.f Grade Level Expectation: Interpreting and analyzing a variety of effective representations of the earth such as maps, globes, and photographs and project future changes (e.g., analyzing maps to determine how population density has changed and will change).
      • 11-12:11.g Grade Level Expectation: Identifying, utilizing, and evaluating appropriate maps for specific purposes (e.g., choosing resource allocation maps in order to investigate oil distribution).
      • 11-12:11.h Grade Level Expectation: Using a variety of grid systems to locate places on maps and globes (e.g., UTM or Public Land Survey Systems).
      • 11-12:11.i Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and synthesizing similar and dissimilar spatial patterns using geographic resources (e.g., examining levels of AIDS infection in relation to population density and literacy).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of human interaction with the environment over time by:
      • 11-12:12.a Grade Level Expectation: Describing and analyzing how human activity and technology currently impact the environment in the U.S. and world, and speculating the impact in the future if current trends continue.
      • 11-12:12.b Grade Level Expectation: Generating information related to the impact of human activities on the physical environment in the local, state, national, or global community in order to draw conclusions and recommend actions (e.g., using charts and graphs to analyze the effects of overfishing along the coast of North America or the Philippine archipelago).
      • 11-12:12.c Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing different viewpoints regarding resource use in the U.S. and world; expressing and supporting one's personal viewpoint (e.g., after debating the causes and/or existence of global warming, expressing one's opinion).
      • 11-12:12.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing multiple factors in the interaction of humans and the environment (e.g., analyzing mediating factors that influence the relationship between population distribution and environmental change).
      • 11-12:12.e Grade Level Expectation: Using information to analyze and evaluate the impact of current voluntary and involuntary migration patterns in the U.S. and world (ex census data).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students analyze how and why cultures continue and change over time by:
      • 11-12:13.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating the impact of expressions of culture in Vermont, the U.S., and the world through analysis of various modes of expression such as poems, songs, dances, stories, paintings, and photographs (e.g., analyzing the influence of black slave culture on subsequent generations of African Americans).
      • 11-12:13.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the contributions of various cultural groups to the world, both past and present, including immigrants and native peoples; hypothesizing about the impact of the globalization of culture.
      • 11-12:13.c Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how location and spatial patterns influence the spread of cultural traits (e.g., comparing clothing, food, religion/ values, government, and art across four ancient cultures in relation to location); analyzing the means by which various cultural groups try to retain their cultural identity.
      • 11-12:13.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating ways in which culture in the United States and the world has changed and may change in the future (e.g., how might the spread of Islam change American culture in the future?).
  • VT.6.8. Standard: Geography Movements and Settlements: Students analyze the factors and implications associated with the historical and contemporary movements and settlements of people and groups in various times in their local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students interpret geography and solve geographic problems by:
      • 11-12:11.a Grade Level Expectation: Identifying characteristics of states, countries, and continents; synthesizing and evaluating characteristics of various areas in relation to a particular variable (e.g., quality of life, economic opportunity, desirability).
      • 11-12:11.b Grade Level Expectation: Observing, comparing, and analyzing patterns of national, and global land use over time (e.g., agriculture, forestry, industry) to understand why particular locations are used for certain human activities; speculating as to which areas might be used in the future and the impact of that usage.
      • 11-12:11.c Grade Level Expectation: Locating the physical, political, and cultural regions the United States and the world; hypothesizing the effects of current trends on these regions (e.g., the dominance of English as an international language).
      • 11-12:11.d Grade Level Expectation: Predicting areas of the world that will increase in future importance and giving reasons to support this prediction.
      • 11-12:11.e Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how technological and environmental changes impact settlement patterns over time (e.g., using tables and maps to show the distribution of refugees from areas affected by natural disasters).
      • 11-12:11.f Grade Level Expectation: Interpreting and analyzing a variety of effective representations of the earth such as maps, globes, and photographs and project future changes (e.g., analyzing maps to determine how population density has changed and will change).
      • 11-12:11.g Grade Level Expectation: Identifying, utilizing, and evaluating appropriate maps for specific purposes (e.g., choosing resource allocation maps in order to investigate oil distribution).
      • 11-12:11.h Grade Level Expectation: Using a variety of grid systems to locate places on maps and globes (e.g., UTM or Public Land Survey Systems).
      • 11-12:11.i Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and synthesizing similar and dissimilar spatial patterns using geographic resources (e.g., examining levels of AIDS infection in relation to population density and literacy).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of human interaction with the environment over time by:
      • 11-12:12.a Grade Level Expectation: Describing and analyzing how human activity and technology currently impact the environment in the U.S. and world, and speculating the impact in the future if current trends continue.
      • 11-12:12.b Grade Level Expectation: Generating information related to the impact of human activities on the physical environment in the local, state, national, or global community in order to draw conclusions and recommend actions (e.g., using charts and graphs to analyze the effects of overfishing along the coast of North America or the Philippine archipelago).
      • 11-12:12.c Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing different viewpoints regarding resource use in the U.S. and world; expressing and supporting one's personal viewpoint (e.g., after debating the causes and/or existence of global warming, expressing one's opinion).
      • 11-12:12.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing multiple factors in the interaction of humans and the environment (e.g., analyzing mediating factors that influence the relationship between population distribution and environmental change).
      • 11-12:12.e Grade Level Expectation: Using information to analyze and evaluate the impact of current voluntary and involuntary migration patterns in the U.S. and world (ex census data).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students analyze how and why cultures continue and change over time by:
      • 11-12:13.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating the impact of expressions of culture in Vermont, the U.S., and the world through analysis of various modes of expression such as poems, songs, dances, stories, paintings, and photographs (e.g., analyzing the influence of black slave culture on subsequent generations of African Americans).
      • 11-12:13.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the contributions of various cultural groups to the world, both past and present, including immigrants and native peoples; hypothesizing about the impact of the globalization of culture.
      • 11-12:13.c Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how location and spatial patterns influence the spread of cultural traits (e.g., comparing clothing, food, religion/ values, government, and art across four ancient cultures in relation to location); analyzing the means by which various cultural groups try to retain their cultural identity.
      • 11-12:13.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating ways in which culture in the United States and the world has changed and may change in the future (e.g., how might the spread of Islam change American culture in the future?).
  • VT.6.9. Standard: Citizenship Meaning of Citizenship: Students examine and debate the meaning of citizenship and act as citizens in a democratic society.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students act as citizens by:
      • 11-12:14.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating changes in the interpretation of rights and responsibilities of citizenship over time (e.g., changes in voting age, changes in voting rights for women and African Americans).
      • 11-12:14.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating the issues related to and criteria for U.S. citizenship, past and present (e.g., analyzing the issues surrounding Japanese citizens during WWII).
      • 11-12:14.c Grade Level Expectation: Discussing why people want to become citizens of the U.S. and/or another country (e.g., Why did Americans emigrate to the Soviet Union during the Depression?).
      • 11-12:14.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing impacts of people's actions as members of a global community (e.g., the Kyoto Agreement).
      • 11-12:14.e Grade Level Expectation: Demonstrating positive interaction with group members (e.g., working with a group to draft legislation).
      • 11-12:14.f Grade Level Expectation: Identifying problems, proposing solutions, considering the effects of and implementing a course of action in the local community, state, nation, or world.
      • 11-12:14.g Grade Level Expectation: Explaining and defending one's own point of view on issues that affect themselves and society, using information gained from reputable sources (e.g. stem cell research, health care issues, federal budget allocations).
      • 11-12:14.h Grade Level Expectation: Explaining, critically evaluating, and defending views that are not one's own.
      • 11-12:14.i Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing ways in which political parties, campaigns, and elections encourage and discourage citizens to participate in the political process (e.g., voter registration drives, use of the Internet, negative campaign ads).
      • 11-12:14.j Grade Level Expectation: Illustrating how individuals and groups have brought about change locally, nationally, or internationally (e.g., research the far-reaching effects of Mohandas Ghandi's beliefs and actions).
      • 11-12:14.k Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how identity stems from beliefs in and allegiance to shared political values and principles, and how these are similar and different to other peoples (e.g. nation building in regions with disparate cultures).
      • 11-12:14.l Grade Level Expectation: Establishing rules and/or policies for a group, school, or community, and defending them (e.g., senior privileges, curfews).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of various forms of government by:
      • 11-12:15.a Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating how and why rules and laws are created, interpreted, and changed (e.g., evaluating recent decisions by the U.N.).
      • 11-12:15.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the principles in key U.S. and international documents and how they apply to their own lives (e.g., Patriot Act, Universal Declaration of Human Rights).
      • 11-12:15.c Grade Level Expectation: Describing how government decisions impact citizens locally, nationally, and internationally.
      • 11-12:15.d Grade Level Expectation: Comparing and evaluating the basic functions, structures and purposes of governments, both past and present (e.g., democracy vs. dictatorship, internal and external protection).
      • 11-12:15.e Grade Level Expectation: Identifying and debating issues surrounding the basic principles of American democracy (e.g., individual rights vs. common good, majority rule vs. protection of minority rights).
      • 11-12:15.f Grade Level Expectation: Defining and analyzing the process for selecting leaders at state, national and international levels (e.g., analyzing pros and cons of the primary process; debating the necessity of the electoral college).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students examine how different societies address issues of human interdependence by:
      • 11-12:16.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of a current or historic issue related to human rights, and explaining how the values of the time or place influenced the issue (e.g. Guantanamo, land mines, invasion of Iraq).
      • 11-12:16.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how shared values and beliefs can create or maintain a subculture and/or counterculture (e.g., the Ku Klux Klan, Goths, Hippies).
      • 11-12:16.c Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the significance of governmental and nongovernmental international organizations (e.g., World Health Organization, Doctors Without Borders, International Atomic Energy Agency, IMF).
      • 11-12:16.d Grade Level Expectation: After examining issues from more than one perspective, defining and defending the rights and needs of others in the community, nation, and world (e.g., gay rights, environmental protection, privatization of government).
      • 11-12:16.e Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the impact of differences and similarities among people that arise from factors such as cultural, ethnic, racial, economic, and religious diversity, and describe their costs and benefits (e.g., affirmative action).
      • 11-12:16.f Grade Level Expectation: Describing how diversity contributes to change over time (e.g., how population shifts impact politics, whites becoming a minority in the U.S., interracial marriage).
      • 11-12:16.g Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of interdependence among states and nations (e.g., OPEC, NAFTA).
      • 11-12:16.h Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the effectiveness of behaviors that are intended to foster global cooperation among groups and governments (e.g., League of Nations, nation building, coalition to fight terrorism).
      • 11-12:16.i Grade Level Expectation: Explaining conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict within and among individuals, communities, and nations (e.g., economic conditions, religious beliefs, political repression).
      • 11-12:16.j Grade Level Expectation: Proposing and defending ways to ease tensions and/or peacefully resolve conflicts (e.g., assimilation/ separatism; affirmative action; diplomacy).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students examine how access to various institutions affects justice, reward, and power by:
      • 11-12:17.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating why groups of people or individuals have accessed or were denied justice (e.g., utilizing contemporary and current primary and secondary sources to determine how perspectives on the Nisei have changed).
      • 11-12:17.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing points of conflict between different political ideologies (e.g., creation of party platforms).
  • VT.6.10. Standard: Citizenship Types of Government: Students compare and evaluate the philosophical underpinnings and the workings of different types of governments, including constitutional governments, in various times in their local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students act as citizens by:
      • 11-12:14.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating changes in the interpretation of rights and responsibilities of citizenship over time (e.g., changes in voting age, changes in voting rights for women and African Americans).
      • 11-12:14.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating the issues related to and criteria for U.S. citizenship, past and present (e.g., analyzing the issues surrounding Japanese citizens during WWII).
      • 11-12:14.c Grade Level Expectation: Discussing why people want to become citizens of the U.S. and/or another country (e.g., Why did Americans emigrate to the Soviet Union during the Depression?).
      • 11-12:14.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing impacts of people's actions as members of a global community (e.g., the Kyoto Agreement).
      • 11-12:14.e Grade Level Expectation: Demonstrating positive interaction with group members (e.g., working with a group to draft legislation).
      • 11-12:14.f Grade Level Expectation: Identifying problems, proposing solutions, considering the effects of and implementing a course of action in the local community, state, nation, or world.
      • 11-12:14.g Grade Level Expectation: Explaining and defending one's own point of view on issues that affect themselves and society, using information gained from reputable sources (e.g. stem cell research, health care issues, federal budget allocations).
      • 11-12:14.h Grade Level Expectation: Explaining, critically evaluating, and defending views that are not one's own.
      • 11-12:14.i Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing ways in which political parties, campaigns, and elections encourage and discourage citizens to participate in the political process (e.g., voter registration drives, use of the Internet, negative campaign ads).
      • 11-12:14.j Grade Level Expectation: Illustrating how individuals and groups have brought about change locally, nationally, or internationally (e.g., research the far-reaching effects of Mohandas Ghandi's beliefs and actions).
      • 11-12:14.k Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how identity stems from beliefs in and allegiance to shared political values and principles, and how these are similar and different to other peoples (e.g. nation building in regions with disparate cultures).
      • 11-12:14.l Grade Level Expectation: Establishing rules and/or policies for a group, school, or community, and defending them (e.g., senior privileges, curfews).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of various forms of government by:
      • 11-12:15.a Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating how and why rules and laws are created, interpreted, and changed (e.g., evaluating recent decisions by the U.N.).
      • 11-12:15.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the principles in key U.S. and international documents and how they apply to their own lives (e.g., Patriot Act, Universal Declaration of Human Rights).
      • 11-12:15.c Grade Level Expectation: Describing how government decisions impact citizens locally, nationally, and internationally.
      • 11-12:15.d Grade Level Expectation: Comparing and evaluating the basic functions, structures and purposes of governments, both past and present (e.g., democracy vs. dictatorship, internal and external protection).
      • 11-12:15.e Grade Level Expectation: Identifying and debating issues surrounding the basic principles of American democracy (e.g., individual rights vs. common good, majority rule vs. protection of minority rights).
      • 11-12:15.f Grade Level Expectation: Defining and analyzing the process for selecting leaders at state, national and international levels (e.g., analyzing pros and cons of the primary process; debating the necessity of the electoral college).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students examine how different societies address issues of human interdependence by:
      • 11-12:16.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of a current or historic issue related to human rights, and explaining how the values of the time or place influenced the issue (e.g. Guantanamo, land mines, invasion of Iraq).
      • 11-12:16.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how shared values and beliefs can create or maintain a subculture and/or counterculture (e.g., the Ku Klux Klan, Goths, Hippies).
      • 11-12:16.c Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the significance of governmental and nongovernmental international organizations (e.g., World Health Organization, Doctors Without Borders, International Atomic Energy Agency, IMF).
      • 11-12:16.d Grade Level Expectation: After examining issues from more than one perspective, defining and defending the rights and needs of others in the community, nation, and world (e.g., gay rights, environmental protection, privatization of government).
      • 11-12:16.e Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the impact of differences and similarities among people that arise from factors such as cultural, ethnic, racial, economic, and religious diversity, and describe their costs and benefits (e.g., affirmative action).
      • 11-12:16.f Grade Level Expectation: Describing how diversity contributes to change over time (e.g., how population shifts impact politics, whites becoming a minority in the U.S., interracial marriage).
      • 11-12:16.g Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of interdependence among states and nations (e.g., OPEC, NAFTA).
      • 11-12:16.h Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the effectiveness of behaviors that are intended to foster global cooperation among groups and governments (e.g., League of Nations, nation building, coalition to fight terrorism).
      • 11-12:16.i Grade Level Expectation: Explaining conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict within and among individuals, communities, and nations (e.g., economic conditions, religious beliefs, political repression).
      • 11-12:16.j Grade Level Expectation: Proposing and defending ways to ease tensions and/or peacefully resolve conflicts (e.g., assimilation/ separatism; affirmative action; diplomacy).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students examine how access to various institutions affects justice, reward, and power by:
      • 11-12:17.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating why groups of people or individuals have accessed or were denied justice (e.g., utilizing contemporary and current primary and secondary sources to determine how perspectives on the Nisei have changed).
      • 11-12:17.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing points of conflict between different political ideologies (e.g., creation of party platforms).
  • VT.6.11. Standard: Citizenship Institutional Access: Students analyze the access that various groups and individuals have had to justice, reward, and power, as those are evident in the institutions in various times in their local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students act as citizens by:
      • 11-12:14.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating changes in the interpretation of rights and responsibilities of citizenship over time (e.g., changes in voting age, changes in voting rights for women and African Americans).
      • 11-12:14.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating the issues related to and criteria for U.S. citizenship, past and present (e.g., analyzing the issues surrounding Japanese citizens during WWII).
      • 11-12:14.c Grade Level Expectation: Discussing why people want to become citizens of the U.S. and/or another country (e.g., Why did Americans emigrate to the Soviet Union during the Depression?).
      • 11-12:14.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing impacts of people's actions as members of a global community (e.g., the Kyoto Agreement).
      • 11-12:14.e Grade Level Expectation: Demonstrating positive interaction with group members (e.g., working with a group to draft legislation).
      • 11-12:14.f Grade Level Expectation: Identifying problems, proposing solutions, considering the effects of and implementing a course of action in the local community, state, nation, or world.
      • 11-12:14.g Grade Level Expectation: Explaining and defending one's own point of view on issues that affect themselves and society, using information gained from reputable sources (e.g. stem cell research, health care issues, federal budget allocations).
      • 11-12:14.h Grade Level Expectation: Explaining, critically evaluating, and defending views that are not one's own.
      • 11-12:14.i Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing ways in which political parties, campaigns, and elections encourage and discourage citizens to participate in the political process (e.g., voter registration drives, use of the Internet, negative campaign ads).
      • 11-12:14.j Grade Level Expectation: Illustrating how individuals and groups have brought about change locally, nationally, or internationally (e.g., research the far-reaching effects of Mohandas Ghandi's beliefs and actions).
      • 11-12:14.k Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how identity stems from beliefs in and allegiance to shared political values and principles, and how these are similar and different to other peoples (e.g. nation building in regions with disparate cultures).
      • 11-12:14.l Grade Level Expectation: Establishing rules and/or policies for a group, school, or community, and defending them (e.g., senior privileges, curfews).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of various forms of government by:
      • 11-12:15.a Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating how and why rules and laws are created, interpreted, and changed (e.g., evaluating recent decisions by the U.N.).
      • 11-12:15.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the principles in key U.S. and international documents and how they apply to their own lives (e.g., Patriot Act, Universal Declaration of Human Rights).
      • 11-12:15.c Grade Level Expectation: Describing how government decisions impact citizens locally, nationally, and internationally.
      • 11-12:15.d Grade Level Expectation: Comparing and evaluating the basic functions, structures and purposes of governments, both past and present (e.g., democracy vs. dictatorship, internal and external protection).
      • 11-12:15.e Grade Level Expectation: Identifying and debating issues surrounding the basic principles of American democracy (e.g., individual rights vs. common good, majority rule vs. protection of minority rights).
      • 11-12:15.f Grade Level Expectation: Defining and analyzing the process for selecting leaders at state, national and international levels (e.g., analyzing pros and cons of the primary process; debating the necessity of the electoral college).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students examine how different societies address issues of human interdependence by:
      • 11-12:16.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of a current or historic issue related to human rights, and explaining how the values of the time or place influenced the issue (e.g. Guantanamo, land mines, invasion of Iraq).
      • 11-12:16.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how shared values and beliefs can create or maintain a subculture and/or counterculture (e.g., the Ku Klux Klan, Goths, Hippies).
      • 11-12:16.c Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the significance of governmental and nongovernmental international organizations (e.g., World Health Organization, Doctors Without Borders, International Atomic Energy Agency, IMF).
      • 11-12:16.d Grade Level Expectation: After examining issues from more than one perspective, defining and defending the rights and needs of others in the community, nation, and world (e.g., gay rights, environmental protection, privatization of government).
      • 11-12:16.e Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the impact of differences and similarities among people that arise from factors such as cultural, ethnic, racial, economic, and religious diversity, and describe their costs and benefits (e.g., affirmative action).
      • 11-12:16.f Grade Level Expectation: Describing how diversity contributes to change over time (e.g., how population shifts impact politics, whites becoming a minority in the U.S., interracial marriage).
      • 11-12:16.g Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of interdependence among states and nations (e.g., OPEC, NAFTA).
      • 11-12:16.h Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the effectiveness of behaviors that are intended to foster global cooperation among groups and governments (e.g., League of Nations, nation building, coalition to fight terrorism).
      • 11-12:16.i Grade Level Expectation: Explaining conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict within and among individuals, communities, and nations (e.g., economic conditions, religious beliefs, political repression).
      • 11-12:16.j Grade Level Expectation: Proposing and defending ways to ease tensions and/or peacefully resolve conflicts (e.g., assimilation/ separatism; affirmative action; diplomacy).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students examine how access to various institutions affects justice, reward, and power by:
      • 11-12:17.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating why groups of people or individuals have accessed or were denied justice (e.g., utilizing contemporary and current primary and secondary sources to determine how perspectives on the Nisei have changed).
      • 11-12:17.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing points of conflict between different political ideologies (e.g., creation of party platforms).
  • VT.6.12. Standard: Citizenship Human Rights: Students identify and evaluate the concept of human rights in various times in their local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students act as citizens by:
      • 11-12:14.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating changes in the interpretation of rights and responsibilities of citizenship over time (e.g., changes in voting age, changes in voting rights for women and African Americans).
      • 11-12:14.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating the issues related to and criteria for U.S. citizenship, past and present (e.g., analyzing the issues surrounding Japanese citizens during WWII).
      • 11-12:14.c Grade Level Expectation: Discussing why people want to become citizens of the U.S. and/or another country (e.g., Why did Americans emigrate to the Soviet Union during the Depression?).
      • 11-12:14.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing impacts of people's actions as members of a global community (e.g., the Kyoto Agreement).
      • 11-12:14.e Grade Level Expectation: Demonstrating positive interaction with group members (e.g., working with a group to draft legislation).
      • 11-12:14.f Grade Level Expectation: Identifying problems, proposing solutions, considering the effects of and implementing a course of action in the local community, state, nation, or world.
      • 11-12:14.g Grade Level Expectation: Explaining and defending one's own point of view on issues that affect themselves and society, using information gained from reputable sources (e.g. stem cell research, health care issues, federal budget allocations).
      • 11-12:14.h Grade Level Expectation: Explaining, critically evaluating, and defending views that are not one's own.
      • 11-12:14.i Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing ways in which political parties, campaigns, and elections encourage and discourage citizens to participate in the political process (e.g., voter registration drives, use of the Internet, negative campaign ads).
      • 11-12:14.j Grade Level Expectation: Illustrating how individuals and groups have brought about change locally, nationally, or internationally (e.g., research the far-reaching effects of Mohandas Ghandi's beliefs and actions).
      • 11-12:14.k Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how identity stems from beliefs in and allegiance to shared political values and principles, and how these are similar and different to other peoples (e.g. nation building in regions with disparate cultures).
      • 11-12:14.l Grade Level Expectation: Establishing rules and/or policies for a group, school, or community, and defending them (e.g., senior privileges, curfews).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of various forms of government by:
      • 11-12:15.a Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating how and why rules and laws are created, interpreted, and changed (e.g., evaluating recent decisions by the U.N.).
      • 11-12:15.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the principles in key U.S. and international documents and how they apply to their own lives (e.g., Patriot Act, Universal Declaration of Human Rights).
      • 11-12:15.c Grade Level Expectation: Describing how government decisions impact citizens locally, nationally, and internationally.
      • 11-12:15.d Grade Level Expectation: Comparing and evaluating the basic functions, structures and purposes of governments, both past and present (e.g., democracy vs. dictatorship, internal and external protection).
      • 11-12:15.e Grade Level Expectation: Identifying and debating issues surrounding the basic principles of American democracy (e.g., individual rights vs. common good, majority rule vs. protection of minority rights).
      • 11-12:15.f Grade Level Expectation: Defining and analyzing the process for selecting leaders at state, national and international levels (e.g., analyzing pros and cons of the primary process; debating the necessity of the electoral college).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students examine how different societies address issues of human interdependence by:
      • 11-12:16.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of a current or historic issue related to human rights, and explaining how the values of the time or place influenced the issue (e.g. Guantanamo, land mines, invasion of Iraq).
      • 11-12:16.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how shared values and beliefs can create or maintain a subculture and/or counterculture (e.g., the Ku Klux Klan, Goths, Hippies).
      • 11-12:16.c Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the significance of governmental and nongovernmental international organizations (e.g., World Health Organization, Doctors Without Borders, International Atomic Energy Agency, IMF).
      • 11-12:16.d Grade Level Expectation: After examining issues from more than one perspective, defining and defending the rights and needs of others in the community, nation, and world (e.g., gay rights, environmental protection, privatization of government).
      • 11-12:16.e Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating the impact of differences and similarities among people that arise from factors such as cultural, ethnic, racial, economic, and religious diversity, and describe their costs and benefits (e.g., affirmative action).
      • 11-12:16.f Grade Level Expectation: Describing how diversity contributes to change over time (e.g., how population shifts impact politics, whites becoming a minority in the U.S., interracial marriage).
      • 11-12:16.g Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of interdependence among states and nations (e.g., OPEC, NAFTA).
      • 11-12:16.h Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the effectiveness of behaviors that are intended to foster global cooperation among groups and governments (e.g., League of Nations, nation building, coalition to fight terrorism).
      • 11-12:16.i Grade Level Expectation: Explaining conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict within and among individuals, communities, and nations (e.g., economic conditions, religious beliefs, political repression).
      • 11-12:16.j Grade Level Expectation: Proposing and defending ways to ease tensions and/or peacefully resolve conflicts (e.g., assimilation/ separatism; affirmative action; diplomacy).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students examine how access to various institutions affects justice, reward, and power by:
      • 11-12:17.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating why groups of people or individuals have accessed or were denied justice (e.g., utilizing contemporary and current primary and secondary sources to determine how perspectives on the Nisei have changed).
      • 11-12:17.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing points of conflict between different political ideologies (e.g., creation of party platforms).
  • VT.6.13. Standard: Diversity and Unity Concepts of Culture: Students understand the concept of culture, including the cultures of indigenous peoples, in various times in their local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students interpret geography and solve geographic problems by:
      • 11-12:11.a Grade Level Expectation: Identifying characteristics of states, countries, and continents; synthesizing and evaluating characteristics of various areas in relation to a particular variable (e.g., quality of life, economic opportunity, desirability).
      • 11-12:11.b Grade Level Expectation: Observing, comparing, and analyzing patterns of national, and global land use over time (e.g., agriculture, forestry, industry) to understand why particular locations are used for certain human activities; speculating as to which areas might be used in the future and the impact of that usage.
      • 11-12:11.c Grade Level Expectation: Locating the physical, political, and cultural regions the United States and the world; hypothesizing the effects of current trends on these regions (e.g., the dominance of English as an international language).
      • 11-12:11.d Grade Level Expectation: Predicting areas of the world that will increase in future importance and giving reasons to support this prediction.
      • 11-12:11.e Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how technological and environmental changes impact settlement patterns over time (e.g., using tables and maps to show the distribution of refugees from areas affected by natural disasters).
      • 11-12:11.f Grade Level Expectation: Interpreting and analyzing a variety of effective representations of the earth such as maps, globes, and photographs and project future changes (e.g., analyzing maps to determine how population density has changed and will change).
      • 11-12:11.g Grade Level Expectation: Identifying, utilizing, and evaluating appropriate maps for specific purposes (e.g., choosing resource allocation maps in order to investigate oil distribution).
      • 11-12:11.h Grade Level Expectation: Using a variety of grid systems to locate places on maps and globes (e.g., UTM or Public Land Survey Systems).
      • 11-12:11.i Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and synthesizing similar and dissimilar spatial patterns using geographic resources (e.g., examining levels of AIDS infection in relation to population density and literacy).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of human interaction with the environment over time by:
      • 11-12:12.a Grade Level Expectation: Describing and analyzing how human activity and technology currently impact the environment in the U.S. and world, and speculating the impact in the future if current trends continue.
      • 11-12:12.b Grade Level Expectation: Generating information related to the impact of human activities on the physical environment in the local, state, national, or global community in order to draw conclusions and recommend actions (e.g., using charts and graphs to analyze the effects of overfishing along the coast of North America or the Philippine archipelago).
      • 11-12:12.c Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing different viewpoints regarding resource use in the U.S. and world; expressing and supporting one's personal viewpoint (e.g., after debating the causes and/or existence of global warming, expressing one's opinion).
      • 11-12:12.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing multiple factors in the interaction of humans and the environment (e.g., analyzing mediating factors that influence the relationship between population distribution and environmental change).
      • 11-12:12.e Grade Level Expectation: Using information to analyze and evaluate the impact of current voluntary and involuntary migration patterns in the U.S. and world (ex census data).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students analyze how and why cultures continue and change over time by:
      • 11-12:13.a Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating the impact of expressions of culture in Vermont, the U.S., and the world through analysis of various modes of expression such as poems, songs, dances, stories, paintings, and photographs (e.g., analyzing the influence of black slave culture on subsequent generations of African Americans).
      • 11-12:13.b Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the contributions of various cultural groups to the world, both past and present, including immigrants and native peoples; hypothesizing about the impact of the globalization of culture.
      • 11-12:13.c Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing how location and spatial patterns influence the spread of cultural traits (e.g., comparing clothing, food, religion/ values, government, and art across four ancient cultures in relation to location); analyzing the means by which various cultural groups try to retain their cultural identity.
      • 11-12:13.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing and evaluating ways in which culture in the United States and the world has changed and may change in the future (e.g., how might the spread of Islam change American culture in the future?).
  • VT.6.15. Standard: Economics Knowledge of Economic Principles: Students use the basic principles of economics to interpret local, state, national, and international economic activity.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show an understanding of the interaction/interdependence between humans, the environment, and the economy by:
      • 11-12:18.a Grade Level Expectation: Explaining patterns and networks of economic interdependence that exist nationally and globally (e.g., currency, stock market, world trade).
      • 11-12:18.b Grade Level Expectation: Examining how producers in the U.S. and/or world have used natural, human, and capital resources to produce goods and services and comparing and contrasting the findings (e.g., compare the use of the labor supply in different countries).
      • 11-12:18.c Grade Level Expectation: Drawing conclusions about how choices within various economic systems affect the environment in the state, nation, and/or world (e.g., mixed, command, and market economies).
    • H&SS7-8:19 Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of the interconnectedness between government and the economy by:
      • 7-8:19.a. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying and comparing goods and services provided by local, state, national, and international governmental and/ or nongovernmental organizations (e.g., researching and debating socialized medicine vs. private healthcare; investigating the role of the International Monetary Fund).
      • 7-8:19.b. Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating and debating the ideological underpinnings of government and economic programs (e.g., how much welfare should governments provide, and on what bases do various governments make these decisions?).
      • 7-8:19.c. Grade Level Expectation: Explaining the global relationship between taxation and governmental goods and services (e.g., exploring the benefits and tradeoffs of foreign aid).
      • 7-8:19.d. Grade Level Expectation: Recognizing that regional economic unions around the world create their own currency for use as money (e.g., the switch from multiple currencies to the Euro).
      • 7-8:19.e. Grade Level Expectation: Recognizing that world events and the strength of currencies affects services and prices (e.g., September 11, 2001 and its effect on the stock market).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students make economic decisions as a consumer, producer, saver, investor, and citizen by:
      • 11-12:20.a Grade Level Expectation: Using economic terms to analyze and interpret global economic issues and problems (e.g., Should there be debt relief for economically unstable countries?).
      • 11-12:20.b Grade Level Expectation: Examining the causes and long term effects of people's needs and/or wants exceeding their available resources, and proposing possible solutions (e.g., distribution and use of fresh water).
      • 11-12:20.c Grade Level Expectation: Developing strategies for earning and spending utilizing a system of accounting (e.g., creating a budget).
      • 11-12:20.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of media, time, and place on buying and saving (e.g., advertising, current events).
      • 11-12:20.e Grade Level Expectation: Demonstrating understanding of patterns and interdependence locally, nationally, and globally that are involved in the production of a product or service (e.g., supply and demand).
  • VT.6.16. Standard: Economics Impact of Economic Systems: Students evaluate the impact of economic systems on the needs and wants of all people and on the environment in various times in their local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show an understanding of the interaction/interdependence between humans, the environment, and the economy by:
      • 11-12:18.a Grade Level Expectation: Explaining patterns and networks of economic interdependence that exist nationally and globally (e.g., currency, stock market, world trade).
      • 11-12:18.b Grade Level Expectation: Examining how producers in the U.S. and/or world have used natural, human, and capital resources to produce goods and services and comparing and contrasting the findings (e.g., compare the use of the labor supply in different countries).
      • 11-12:18.c Grade Level Expectation: Drawing conclusions about how choices within various economic systems affect the environment in the state, nation, and/or world (e.g., mixed, command, and market economies).
    • H&SS7-8:19 Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of the interconnectedness between government and the economy by:
      • 7-8:19.a. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying and comparing goods and services provided by local, state, national, and international governmental and/ or nongovernmental organizations (e.g., researching and debating socialized medicine vs. private healthcare; investigating the role of the International Monetary Fund).
      • 7-8:19.b. Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating and debating the ideological underpinnings of government and economic programs (e.g., how much welfare should governments provide, and on what bases do various governments make these decisions?).
      • 7-8:19.c. Grade Level Expectation: Explaining the global relationship between taxation and governmental goods and services (e.g., exploring the benefits and tradeoffs of foreign aid).
      • 7-8:19.d. Grade Level Expectation: Recognizing that regional economic unions around the world create their own currency for use as money (e.g., the switch from multiple currencies to the Euro).
      • 7-8:19.e. Grade Level Expectation: Recognizing that world events and the strength of currencies affects services and prices (e.g., September 11, 2001 and its effect on the stock market).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students make economic decisions as a consumer, producer, saver, investor, and citizen by:
      • 11-12:20.a Grade Level Expectation: Using economic terms to analyze and interpret global economic issues and problems (e.g., Should there be debt relief for economically unstable countries?).
      • 11-12:20.b Grade Level Expectation: Examining the causes and long term effects of people's needs and/or wants exceeding their available resources, and proposing possible solutions (e.g., distribution and use of fresh water).
      • 11-12:20.c Grade Level Expectation: Developing strategies for earning and spending utilizing a system of accounting (e.g., creating a budget).
      • 11-12:20.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of media, time, and place on buying and saving (e.g., advertising, current events).
      • 11-12:20.e Grade Level Expectation: Demonstrating understanding of patterns and interdependence locally, nationally, and globally that are involved in the production of a product or service (e.g., supply and demand).
  • VT.6.17. Standard: Economics Governments and Resources: Students understand how governments affect the flow of resources, goods, and services.
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show an understanding of the interaction/interdependence between humans, the environment, and the economy by:
      • 11-12:18.a Grade Level Expectation: Explaining patterns and networks of economic interdependence that exist nationally and globally (e.g., currency, stock market, world trade).
      • 11-12:18.b Grade Level Expectation: Examining how producers in the U.S. and/or world have used natural, human, and capital resources to produce goods and services and comparing and contrasting the findings (e.g., compare the use of the labor supply in different countries).
      • 11-12:18.c Grade Level Expectation: Drawing conclusions about how choices within various economic systems affect the environment in the state, nation, and/or world (e.g., mixed, command, and market economies).
    • H&SS7-8:19 Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students show understanding of the interconnectedness between government and the economy by:
      • 7-8:19.a. Grade Level Expectation: Identifying and comparing goods and services provided by local, state, national, and international governmental and/ or nongovernmental organizations (e.g., researching and debating socialized medicine vs. private healthcare; investigating the role of the International Monetary Fund).
      • 7-8:19.b. Grade Level Expectation: Evaluating and debating the ideological underpinnings of government and economic programs (e.g., how much welfare should governments provide, and on what bases do various governments make these decisions?).
      • 7-8:19.c. Grade Level Expectation: Explaining the global relationship between taxation and governmental goods and services (e.g., exploring the benefits and tradeoffs of foreign aid).
      • 7-8:19.d. Grade Level Expectation: Recognizing that regional economic unions around the world create their own currency for use as money (e.g., the switch from multiple currencies to the Euro).
      • 7-8:19.e. Grade Level Expectation: Recognizing that world events and the strength of currencies affects services and prices (e.g., September 11, 2001 and its effect on the stock market).
    • H&SS11-12: Essential Knowledge And Skill: Grade Level Expectation Students make economic decisions as a consumer, producer, saver, investor, and citizen by:
      • 11-12:20.a Grade Level Expectation: Using economic terms to analyze and interpret global economic issues and problems (e.g., Should there be debt relief for economically unstable countries?).
      • 11-12:20.b Grade Level Expectation: Examining the causes and long term effects of people's needs and/or wants exceeding their available resources, and proposing possible solutions (e.g., distribution and use of fresh water).
      • 11-12:20.c Grade Level Expectation: Developing strategies for earning and spending utilizing a system of accounting (e.g., creating a budget).
      • 11-12:20.d Grade Level Expectation: Analyzing the impact of media, time, and place on buying and saving (e.g., advertising, current events).
      • 11-12:20.e Grade Level Expectation: Demonstrating understanding of patterns and interdependence locally, nationally, and globally that are involved in the production of a product or service (e.g., supply and demand).
 
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