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Utah: 8th-Grade Standards

(Note: For grades 7–12, Utah provides standards by course, instead of by grade level. Courses to be covered in grades 7–12 are Utah Studies, U.S. History I, U.S. History II, Geography for Life, World Civilizations, and U.S. Government and Citizenship.

Utah public schools have also adopted the Common Core Standards for Reading for Literacy in History/Social Studies and Writing for Literacy in History/Social Studies for grades 6–12.)

  • UT.1. Standard: Utah Studies

    Students will understand the interaction between Utah's geography and its inhabitants.

    • 1.1. Objective:

      Investigate the relationship between physical geography and Utah's settlement, land use, and economy.

      • 1.1.a. Indicator:

        Read and interpret a variety of maps.

      • 1.1.b. Indicator:

        Identify the physical features and regions of Utah.

      • 1.1.c. Indicator:

        Compare and contrast the relationship between physical features and regions to settlement, land use, and the economy.

    • 1.2. Objective:

      Examine the interrelationship between Utah's climate, location, landforms, and life.

      • 1.2.a. Indicator:

        Describe how latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean influence Utah's climate.

      • 1.2.b. Indicator:

        Explain how mountains, valleys, and bodies of water affect climate.

      • 1.2.c. Indicator:

        Assess how climate influences life in Utah.

      • 1.2.d. Indicator:

        Explain how natural forces shape the living environment and landscape.

      • 1.2.e. Indicator:

        Investigate how natural forces shape the local environments.

      • 1.2.f. Indicator:

        Predict how natural forces affect environments; e.g., earthquakes, volcanic action, mudslides, flooding, erosion.

    • 1.3. Objective:

      Assess how natural resources sustain and enhance people's lives.

      • 1.3.a. Indicator:

        Recognize the impact of water, minerals, wildlife, and forests on people.

      • 1.3.b. Indicator:

        Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources.

      • 1.3.c. Indicator:

        Analyze how natural resources improve the quality of life.

      • 1.3.d. Indicator:

        Assess the importance of protecting and preserving natural resources.

    • 1.4. Objective:

      Examine how people affect the geography of Utah.

      • 1.4.a. Indicator:

        Identify Utah's counties and cities.

      • 1.4.b. Indicator:

        Assess how people change the landscape.

      • 1.4.c. Indicator:

        Examine how altered landscapes affect people.

  • UT.2. Standard: Utah Studies

    Students will understand the contributions of Native American Indians, explorers, and Utah's pioneers.

    • 2.1. Objective:

      Examine the contributions of Native American Indians to the culture of Utah.

      • 2.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify prehistoric and historic Native American Indian groups.

      • 2.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the interrelationship between each culture and its environment.

      • 2.1.c. Indicator:

        Investigate spiritual, artistic, architectural, and oral traditions of Utah's Native American Indians; e.g., languages, storytelling, pottery, basketry, weaving, beadwork, and dwellings.

      • 2.1.d. Indicator:

        Identify how Native American Indian heritage influences Utah today.

    • 2.2. Objective:

      Investigate the importance of explorers to Utah's settlement.

      • 2.2.a. Indicator:

        Explain the contributions of the Spanish, mountain men, government, and scientific explorers.

      • 2.2.b. Indicator:

        Identify other explorers who contributed to our understanding of Utah.

    • 2.3. Objective:

      Describe the significance of pioneers in Utah history.

      • 2.3.a. Indicator:

        Explain the reasons for the Mormon migration to Utah.

      • 2.3.b. Indicator:

        Explore the pattern of Mormon settlement throughout the West.

      • 2.3.c. Indicator:

        Recognize how the Mormon pioneers' heritage influences Utah today.

      • 2.3.d. Indicator:

        Investigate the contributions of Utah's 'new pioneers', i.e., ethnic/multicultural/religious/scientific/technological groups.

  • UT.3. Standard: Utah Studies

    Students will understand the relationship between government and the people of Utah.

    • 3.1. Objective:

      Examine Utah's struggle for statehood.

      • 3.1.a. Indicator:

        Compare and contrast territorial and state government organization.

      • 3.1.b. Indicator:

        Explain the benefits of statehood over territorial government.

      • 3.1.c. Indicator:

        Examine the unique relationship between the sovereign Native American Indian nations, the United States government and the Utah State government.

      • 3.1.d. Indicator:

        Investigate how government services affect the residents of the state.

    • 3.2. Objective:

      Examine the structure and function of city, county, and state governments.

      • 3.2.a. Indicator:

        Explain the role of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches in state government.

      • 3.2.b. Indicator:

        Assess the similarities and differences among the levels of local government.

      • 3.2.c. Indicator:

        Identify local officials and their responsibilities.

      • 3.2.d. Indicator:

        Research services that are provided by each level of government; i.e., city, county, township.

    • 3.3. Objective:

      Assess the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.

      • 3.3.a. Indicator:

        Compare and contrast the United States and Utah Constitutions.

      • 3.3.b. Indicator:

        Explain the rights and responsibilities of good citizens.

      • 3.3.c. Indicator:

        Investigate how individuals can be involved in the political process.

  • UT.4. Standard: Utah Studies

    Students will understand the diverse ways people make a living in Utah.

    • 4.1. Objective:

      Explore the components of Utah's economy.

      • 4.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify the multiple components of Utah's economy; e.g., government, agriculture, mining, tourism, high tech industry.

      • 4.1.b. Indicator:

        Investigate Utah's global trade interdependence.

      • 4.1.c. Indicator:

        Research important segments of the local economy.

      • 4.1.d. Indicator:

        Assess factors that attract people and businesses to locate in Utah.

    • 4.2. Objective:

      Investigate the past and present role of agriculture in Utah.

      • 4.2.a. Indicator:

        Identify the importance of farming and ranching to Utah's economy.

      • 4.2.b. Indicator:

        Explain the impact of the Great Depression on farmers and agriculture.

      • 4.2.c. Indicator:

        Investigate how agriculture has diversified and improved over time.

      • 4.2.d. Indicator:

        Examine the cultural legacy of agriculture in Utah.

    • 4.3. Objective:

      Examine aspects that have broadened Utah's economy.

      • 4.3.a. Indicator:

        Investigate the role of mining in Utah.

      • 4.3.b. Indicator:

        Examine the railroad's impact on Utah.

      • 4.3.c. Indicator:

        Explain the impact of military installations.

      • 4.3.d. Indicator:

        Assess the development of heavy and high tech industries.

    • 4.4. Objective:

      Investigate the current status of Utah's economy.

      • 4.4.a. Indicator:

        Examine the role of recreation and tourism in Utah.

      • 4.4.b. Indicator:

        Outline the role of labor unions.

      • 4.4.c. Indicator:

        Explain the effects of private, state, and federal land ownership on land use; i.e., parks, forests, trust lands, etc.

  • UT.5. Standard: Utah Studies

    Students will understand the diverse nature of Utah's peoples and cultures.

    • 5.1. Objective:

      Assess the cultural diversity of Utah.

      • 5.1.a. Indicator:

        Recognize the unique lifestyles of various cultural or ethnic groups in the local community.

      • 5.1.b. Indicator:

        Explain the role of immigration in changing Utah society.

      • 5.1.c. Indicator:

        Research the ways people maintain and preserve cultural identity; e.g., language, custom, holidays, tradition.

      • 5.1.d. Indicator:

        Explain the issues immigrants encounter in adapting to life in Utah.

    • 5.2. Objective:

      Investigate the contributions of Utah's religious and ethnic groups, including Native American Indians.

      • 5.2.a. Indicator:

        Identify Utah's religious and ethnic groups.

      • 5.2.b. Indicator:

        Explain the reasons Utah's religious and ethnic groups settled in Utah.

      • 5.2.c. Indicator:

        Explain the benefits each ethnic and religious group adds to Utah's society.

      • 5.2.d. Indicator:

        Investigate how Utah's religious and ethnic groups adapt and interact.

    • 5.3. Objective:

      Assess the diverse cultural and recreational opportunities available in Utah.

      • 5.3.a. Indicator:

        Examine Utah arts opportunities in the areas of dance, music, theater, and visual arts.

      • 5.3.b. Indicator:

        Investigate recreational opportunities in Utah.

  • UT.6. Standard: Utah Studies

    Students will understand the impact of major contemporary events that concern the land and people of Utah.

    • 6.1. Objective:

      Identify and investigate major contemporary events that affect individuals, institutions, and society.

      • 6.1.a. Indicator:

        Examine different points of view on important events; e.g., points of view on land, politics.

      • 6.1.b. Indicator:

        Identify the impact each point of view may have on the state.

      • 6.1.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the avenues available for individual or community involvement.

  • UT.1. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will interpret the role of geography in shaping United States history.

    • 1.1. Objective:

      Determine how geography affected the development of the United States.

      • 1.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify the five themes of geography; i.e., location, place, human-environmental interaction, movement, and region.

      • 1.1.b. Indicator:

        Apply the five themes of geography as they relate to the development of the United States.

    • 1.2. Objective:

      Utilize geographic skills as they relate to the study of the United States.

      • 1.2.a. Indicator:

        Locate the major physical features, including the plains, major rivers, bodies of water, mountain ranges, and continents.

      • 1.2.b. Indicator:

        Locate the major political features, including countries, regions, and states.

      • 1.2.c. Indicator:

        Apply map and globe skills to the study of United States history; e.g., direction, legend, scale, grid coordinates.

  • UT.2. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will investigate the relationship between events of different time periods.

    • 2.1. Objective:

      Develop an awareness of current events.

      • 2.1.a. Indicator:

        Use print and broadcast media to acquire an awareness of current events.

      • 2.1.b. Indicator:

        Recognize the difference between fact and opinion, and discern bias in the media.

    • 2.2. Objective:

      Analyze how contemporary concerns and events affect and are affected by history.

      • 2.2.a. Indicator:

        Apply knowledge of historical events to recent major events.

      • 2.2.b. Indicator:

        Utilize contemporary news to discuss past events.

  • UT.3. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will understand the changes caused by European exploration in the Americas.

    • 3.1. Objective:

      Explore life among the various American Indian nations prior to European exploration of the New World.

      • 3.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify the major regional American Indian nations of North America.

      • 3.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the cultures of American Indian nations; e.g., languages, beliefs, traditions, and lifestyles.

    • 3.2. Objective:

      Analyze the reasons for European exploration.

      • 3.2.a. Indicator:

        Explain the economic reasons behind exploration; e.g., trade routes, discoveries of fine goods in the East, search for raw materials.

      • 3.2.b. Indicator:

        Examine the political reasons behind exploration; e.g., empire building, European rivalries.

      • 3.2.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the social reasons behind exploration; e.g., spreading ideas and beliefs, seeking religious freedoms.

      • 3.2.d. Indicator:

        Identify key individuals who contributed to European exploration; e.g. Columbus, Cartier, Cabot, Hudson.

    • 3.3. Objective:

      Assess the impact of European exploration on African slaves and American Indian nations.

      • 3.3.a. Indicator:

        Examine the reasons for slavery in the New World; e.g., cotton, sugar, tobacco.

      • 3.3.b. Indicator:

        Trace the beginnings of the slave trade in the Americas.

      • 3.3.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the transportation of African slaves to the Americas; i.e., triangular trade routes, the middle passage.

      • 3.3.d. Indicator:

        Explore the impact of the Europeans and the resulting destruction of American Indian cultures; e.g., the Spanish Conquistadors, disease brought by Europeans, European settlement.

  • UT.4. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will analyze European colonization and settlement of North America.

    • 4.1. Objective:

      Explain where and why European countries colonized North America, e.g., the Netherlands, England, France, Spain.

      • 4.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify motives for exploration; e.g., religion, expansion, trade, wealth.

      • 4.1.b. Indicator:

        Locate the geographical regions of European settlement.

      • 4.1.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the contributions and influences of the major European powers.

    • 4.2. Objective:

      Assess the reasons for settlement of the English colonies.

      • 4.2.a. Indicator:

        Compare the reasons for settlement in the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.

      • 4.2.b. Indicator:

        Explain the contributions of key individuals in the settling of the English colonies; e.g., John Smith, Lord Baltimore, William Bradford.

      • 4.2.c. Indicator:

        Identify key groups involved in the settlement of the English colonies; e.g., Virginia Company, Pilgrims, Puritans, Quakers.

      • 4.2.d. Indicator:

        Determine the reasons for conflict between the European powers in North America.

      • 4.2.e. Indicator:

        Examine the causes and outcomes of the French and Indian War.

    • 4.3. Objective:

      Examine the economic, political, and social patterns in the development of the 13 English colonies.

      • 4.3.a. Indicator: Contrast the economies of the three major Colonial regions

        New England, Middle, and Southern.

      • 4.3.b. Indicator:

        Assess the impact of geography on the economies of the three major regions.

      • 4.3.c. Indicator:

        Explain the development of self-government in the colonies.

      • 4.3.d. Indicator:

        Investigate the lifestyles and cultures of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies; e.g., education, slavery, religion.

  • UT.5. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will understand the significance of the American Revolution in the development of the United States.

    • 5.1. Objective:

      Analyze what ideas and events led to the Revolutionary movement.

      • 5.1.a. Indicator:

        Explore the events leading to the outbreak of armed conflict between the American colonies and Great Britain.

      • 5.1.b. Indicator:

        Analyze the origin of the ideas behind the revolutionary movement and the movement toward independence; e.g., social contract, natural rights, English traditions.

      • 5.1.c. Indicator:

        Explain the major ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence.

    • 5.2. Objective:

      Assess the factors affecting the course of the war and contributing to American victory.

      • 5.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine how the Revolutionary War affected the colonists.

      • 5.2.b. Indicator:

        Explain the events that brought European aid to the American cause.

      • 5.2.c. Indicator:

        Examine the advantages and disadvantages of the Continental Army against British resources.

    • 5.3. Objective:

      Evaluate the contributions of key people and groups to the Revolution.

      • 5.3.a. Indicator:

        Identify the contributions of colonial leaders; e.g., George Washington, Thomas Paine, Alexander Hamilton, Sam Adams, John Adams.

      • 5.3.b. Indicator:

        Analyze the role various political groups played in the Revolutionary movement; e.g., Sons and Daughters of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence, 1st and 2nd Continental Congress.

      • 5.3.c. Indicator:

        Examine the contributions of various social groups to the Revolutionary movement; e.g., women, free and enslaved blacks, American Indians.

    • 5.4. Objective:

      Examine the effects of the Revolution on the United States.

      • 5.4.a. Indicator:

        Analyze the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783.

      • 5.4.b. Indicator:

        Determine the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.

      • 5.4.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the problems that faced the emerging nation; e.g., debt, lack of unified central government, international relations.

      • 5.4.d. Indicator:

        Explain the effect the Revolution had on people; e.g., Native American Indians, slaves, European immigrants.

  • UT.6. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will understand the structure and function of the United States government established by the Constitution.

    • 6.1. Objective:

      Assess the foundations and principles that led to the development of the Constitution.

      • 6.1.a. Indicator:

        Analyze the factors involved in convening the Constitutional Convention.

      • 6.1.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the ideas and documents that became the foundation for the United States Constitution; e.g., Magna Carta, Iroquois Confederation, European philosophers.

    • 6.2. Objective:

      Analyze the compromises that led to the ratification of the Constitution.

      • 6.2.a. Indicator:

        Compare the Federalists and Anti-Federalist ratification debates.

      • 6.2.b. Indicator:

        Examine the Constitution ratification compromises; i.e., 3/5 Compromise, Great Compromise, Bill of Rights.

    • 6.3. Objective:

      Examine the basic structure of the Constitution.

      • 6.3.a. Indicator:

        Identify the major elements of the United States Constitution.

      • 6.3.b. Indicator:

        Explain the purpose of the Constitution as outlined in the preamble.

      • 6.3.c. Indicator:

        Explore the role and functions of the three branches of government.

      • 6.3.d. Indicator:

        Examine the Constitutional principles of separation of powers and checks and balances.

      • 6.3.e. Indicator:

        Determine the role of the Constitution as a living document.

    • 6.4. Objective:

      Analyze the rights, liberties, and responsibilities of citizens.

      • 6.4.a. Indicator:

        Identify the responsibilities of citizenship to secure liberties; e.g., vote, perform jury duty, obey laws.

      • 6.4.b. Indicator:

        Examine the Bill of Rights and its specific guarantees.

  • UT.7. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will explore the territorial growth of the United States before the Civil War.

    • 7.1. Objective:

      Describe the ideas and events that motivated the expansion of the United States.

      • 7.1.a. Indicator:

        Explain Manifest Destiny and its role in American expansion; e.g., land acquisition, economy, immigration.

      • 7.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the background and consequences of the Louisiana Purchase.

      • 7.1.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the role of explorers in the expansion of the United States; e.g., Lewis and Clark, Pike, Fremont.

      • 7.1.d. Indicator:

        Examine the groups of people that came West; e.g., mountain men, Mormon pioneers, California 49ers, Asian and Irish immigrants.

    • 7.2. Objective:

      Examine the conflicts during the American expansion.

      • 7.2.a. Indicator:

        Investigate the causes and results of the War of 1812.

      • 7.2..b. Indicator:

        Analyze government policies toward and treaties with American Indian nations; e.g., relocation, removal, assimilation, and sovereignty.

      • 7.2.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the impact of the Mexican War on the land and people of the American Southwest; e.g., Mexican Cession, Texas, Gadsden Purchase.

    • 7.3. Objective:

      Analyze how new inventions and transportation methods stimulated western expansion.

      • 7.3a. Indicator:

        Research the impact of inventions on expansion; e.g., farming, industry, communication.

      • 7.3.b. Indicator:

        Examine developments in transportation; e.g., expansion of roads and trails, steamboats, and railroads.

    • 7.4. Objective:

      Assess the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the United States.

      • 7.4.a. Indicator:

        Examine the development of the factory system.

      • 7.4.b. Indicator:

        Analyze the role of factories on the growth of northern cities.

      • 7.4.c. Indicator:

        Determine how the Industrial Revolution affected the North, South, and West differently.

      • 7.4.d. Indicator:

        Investigate the changes in working conditions caused by the Industrial Revolution.

  • UT.8. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will examine the expansion of the political system and social rights before the Civil War.

    • 8.1. Objective:

      Investigate the development of the American political party system.

      • 8.1.a. Indicator:

        Examine the differences between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.

      • 8.1.b. Indicator:

        Trace the development of new political parties throughout the 18th and 19th centuries; e.g., Whigs, Jacksonian Democrats, Republicans.

      • 8.1.c. Indicator:

        Determine the role of third parties as an agent of reform.

      • 8.1.d. Indicator:

        Investigate the role of political parties in the electoral process.

    • 8.2. Objective:

      Analyze the evolution of democracy and the extension of democratic principles.

      • 8.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine how the Supreme Court strengthened the national government.

      • 8.2.b. Indicator:

        Analyze how states' rights issues led to growing sectionalism.

      • 8.2.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the relationship between national and state governments in expanding democracy.

      • 8.2.d. Indicator:

        Appraise how the political process changed to involve more people.

    • 8.3. Objective:

      Analyze the impact of social reforms on Americans during the 19th century.

      • 8.3.a. Indicator:

        Examine the abolitionist movement; e.g., Sojourner Truth, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas, the Grimke sisters.

      • 8.3.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the impact of reform in education, religion, prisons and the treatment of the mentally ill during this period.

      • 8.3.c. Indicator:

        Examine the extension of women's political and legal rights.

  • UT.9. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will understand the significance of the Civil War Era to the United States.

    • 9.1. Objective:

      Analyze differences and events that led to the Civil War.

      • 9.1.a. Indicator:

        Describe the cultural differences between the North and the South.

      • 9.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the sectional economic differences of the United States; e.g., slavery, industry, agriculture, geography.

      • 9.1.c. Indicator:

        Analyze how states' rights led to conflict between the North and the South.

      • 9.1.d. Indicator:

        Trace the failure of compromise to ease sectional differences; e.g., Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act.

      • 9.1.e. Indicator:

        Investigate how the abolitionist movement increased sectional tensions between the Northern and Southern states; e.g., John Brown's raid, Dred Scott decision, Uncle Tom's Cabin, and Fugitive Slave Law.

      • 9.1.f. Indicator:

        Assess how the election of 1860 led to secession.

    • 9.2. Objective:

      Determine the factors that affected the course of the war and contributed to Union victory.

      • 9.2.a. Indicator:

        Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the Union and the Confederacy.

      • 9.2.b. Indicator:

        Analyze the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation on the United States and the Confederacy.

      • 9.2.c. Indicator:

        Identify the contributions of key individuals in the Civil War; e.g., Lincoln, Davis, Lee, Grant.

      • 9.2.d. Indicator:

        Investigate how the Civil War affected all people in the United States land area.

    • 9.3. Objective:

      Evaluate the Reconstruction period and how it affected the United States following the Civil War.

      • 9.3.a. Indicator:

        Explain the purpose of Reconstruction.

      • 9.3.b. Indicator:

        Analyze the social impact of Reconstruction; e.g., abolition of slavery, integration of races, fall of Southern society, education.

      • 9.3.c. Indicator:

        Determine the economic changes in the country caused by Reconstruction.

      • 9.3.d. Indicator:

        Explain the political changes brought about by the Reconstruction Era; e.g., 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, voting regulations, military districts.

  • UT.10. Standard: U.S. History I

    Students will understand the development of the American West following the Civil War.

    • 10.1. Objective:

      Analyze the factors that brought people west.

      • 10.1.a. Indicator:

        Examine why peoples came to the West; e.g., farmers, ranchers, miners, American Indian nations, immigrants, adventurers.

      • 10.1.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the impact of mining and ranching on the land and people.

      • 10.1.c. Indicator:

        Assess the impact of the railroad on western development.

    • 10.2. Objective:

      Analyze the settlement of the American West.

      • 10.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine the changes of the landscape due to settlement patterns.

      • 10.2.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the development of cities in the West.

      • 10.2.c. Indicator:

        Assess the impact western settlement patterns had on the Native American Indians.

    • 10.3. Objective:

      Investigate the conflict among various groups involved in the settlement of the West.

      • 10.3.a. Indicator:

        Determine the reasons and groups involved in conflict during the settlement of the West; e.g., ranchers, miners, farmers, American Indian nations, immigrants.

      • 10.3.b. Indicator:

        Examine the consequences of conflict in the settlement of the West.

  • UT.1. Standard: U.S. History II

    Students will expand their knowledge of pre-Reconstruction America.

    • 1.1. Objective:

      Examine the American colonial experience.

      • 1.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify reasons for the establishment of colonies in America.

      • 1.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the rise of American culture in the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.

    • 1.2. Objective:

      Investigate the development of the United States government, its institutions, and its politics.

      • 1.2.a. Indicator:

        Identify the philosophies which influenced the development of the Constitution, separation of powers, balance of power, and the elastic clause.

      • 1.2.b. Indicator:

        Analyze the Constitution's creation and impact on the new United States.

      • 1.2.c. Indicator:

        Trace the development of American government and politics from the Federalist period through Jacksonian democracy.

    • 1.3. Objective:

      Analyze the growth and division of the United States from 1820 through 1877.

      • 1.3.a. Indicator:

        Trace the United States' expansion and growth from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

      • 1.3.b. Indicator:

        Recognize the sectional differences that developed during the antebellum period.

      • 1.3.c. Indicator:

        Evaluate the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.

      • 1.3.d. Indicator:

        Analyze the successes and failures of the Reconstruction period following the Civil War.

      • 1.3.e. Indicator:

        Examine the United States' policies relating to American Indians.

  • UT.2. Standard: U.S. History II

    Students will understand how the growth of industry changed the United States.

    • 2.1. Objective:

      Assess how transportation, communication, and marketing improvements and innovations transformed the American economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

      • 2.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify major American inventions and how they affected the United States; e.g., telephone, electricity, car, motion pictures.

      • 2.1.b. Indicator:

        Explain the expansion of transportation and communication in the United States following the Civil War.

      • 2.1.c. Indicator:

        Determine the impact of industrialization on the American economy and society.

      • 2.1.d. Indicator:

        Examine how the market revolution affected retail distribution of goods in the cities and in rural areas.

    • 2.2. Objective:

      Evaluate the prominent business leaders and the business organizations that influenced the growth of industrialization in the United States.

      • 2.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine the roles of American industrialists; e.g., Rockefeller, Morgan, Carnegie, Vanderbilt, Ford.

      • 2.2.b. Indicator:

        Evaluate the growth and influences of monopolies and trusts on capitalism.

    • 2.3. Objective:

      Assess how the growth of industry affected the movement of people into and within the United States.

      • 2.3.a. Indicator:

        Determine the demographic changes in population from the 1890's to the present.

      • 2.3.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the influences that affected various immigrant groups entering the United States.

      • 2.3.c. Indicator:

        Examine the working conditions of immigrant workers; e.g., factory, mine, agriculture, transportation.

    • 2.4. Objective:

      Investigate the challenges presented to urban inhabitants.

      • 2.4.a. Indicator:

        Identify how American cities spawned American architecture.

      • 2.4.b. Indicator:

        Examine living conditions in tenements.

      • 2.4.c. Indicator:

        Compare the attitudes of Social Darwinism with those of Social Gospel believers.

  • UT.3. Standard: U.S. History II

    Students will recognize how social reform occurred at the turn of the century.

    • 3.1. Objective:

      Investigate reform movements and their prominent leaders.

      • 3.1.a. Indicator:

        Examine the problems faced by American farmers created by the new market economy and the rise of the Populist Party.

      • 3.1.b. Indicator:

        Analyze the growth and influence of political machines; i.e., muckrakers, Progressives.

      • 3.1.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the emerging civil rights movements for women and Afro-Americans.

    • 3.2. Objective:

      Assess the growth and development of labor unions and their key leaders.

      • 3.2.a. Indicator:

        Trace the development of national labor unions.

      • 3.2.b. Indicator:

        Determine the impact of collective bargaining.

      • 3.2.c. Indicator:

        Analyze the development of socialism in the United States.

  • UT.4. Standard: U.S. History II

    Students will understand how war affected the early 20th century.

    • 4.1. Objective:

      Investigate how the United States became involved in imperialism and the Spanish-American War.

      • 4.1.a. Indicator:

        Determine the economic, social, and military affects of United States imperialism.

      • 4.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the cause, course, and consequences of the Spanish-American War.

      • 4.1.c. Indicator:

        Assess how America's imperialism altered relationships with the Far East and Latin America.

    • 4.2. Objective:

      Examine how World War I affected the military and the home front of the United States.

      • 4.2.a. Indicator:

        Identify major causes of World War I and the United States' involvement and influence in the war; i.e., Wilson's fourteen points, the Versailles Treaty.

      • 4.2.b. Indicator:

        Determine the reasons the United States Senate refused to join the League of Nations.

      • 4.2.c. Indicator:

        Examine the impact World War I had on the United States; e.g., government policy, industrial might, civil liberties.

  • UT.5. Standard: U.S. History II

    Students will understand how Americans reacted to rapid social change during the 1920's.

    • 5.1. Objective:

      Analyze how the United States coped with rapid economic and technological advances.

      • 5.1.a. Indicator:

        Investigate how mass media affected American society.

      • 5.1.b. Indicator:

        Assess how new inventions and consumerism influenced daily life.

      • 5.1.c. Indicator:

        Explain how the automobile affected the business and landscape of America.

    • 5.2. Objective:

      Examine the experiences of black Americans and women in the early 20th century.

      • 5.2.a. Indicator:

        Account for the sudden growth of black consciousness.

      • 5.2.b. Indicator:

        Describe the changes in women's attitudes and roles in society.

  • UT.6. Standard: U.S. History II

    Students will understand how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected the United States.

    • 6.1. Objective:

      Investigate the impact of the Great Depression on the United States.

      • 6.1.a. Indicator:

        Analyze the major causes of the Great Depression.

      • 6.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the social effects of the Great Depression.

    • 6.2. Objective:

      Analyze the long-term effects of the New Deal on the United States.

      • 6.2.a. Indicator:

        Explore the purposes and effectiveness of the New Deal; e.g., presidency, economics, politics.

      • 6.2.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the shift of power from state to federal government.

  • UT.7. Standard: U.S. History II

    Students will understand the causes, course, and consequences of the United States' role in World War II.

    • 7.1. Objective:

      Determine how America shifted from isolationism to intervention.

      • 7.1.a. Indicator:

        Analyze the factors that led to militarism and fascist aggression in the world.

      • 7.1.b. Indicator:

        Determine how the attack on Pearl Harbor forced the United States out of isolationism.

      • 7.1.c. Indicator:

        Examine how the alliance systems led the United States into World War II.

      • 7.1.d. Indicator:

        Investigate the major campaigns of the United States in the European and Pacific theaters; e.g., Midway, D-Day, Battle of the Bulge, island hopping, and the bombing of Japan.

    • 7.2. Objective:

      Examine the impact World War II had on the American home front.

      • 7.2.a. Indicator:

        Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America.

      • 7.2.b. Indicator:

        Examine the role women played in the wartime workforce.

      • 7.2.c. Indicator:

        Trace American mobilization for war.

    • 7.3. Objective:

      Evaluate how the rules and weapons of war changed during World War II.

      • 7.3.a. Indicator:

        Assess how the war expanded beyond military targets to civilian centers.

      • 7.3.b. Indicator:

        Evaluate how technology changed the weapons used in World War II and introduced the atomic age.

    • 7.4. Objective:

      Investigate the Post-War Baby Boom's influence on America.

      • 7.4.a. Indicator:

        Assess the influence of the G.I. Bill on the American lifestyle.

      • 7.4.b. Indicator:

        Trace the development of consumerism and the economy on the Baby Boom generation.

      • 7.4.c. Indicator:

        Trace the development of television and its impact on American culture.

      • 7.4.d. Indicator:

        Investigate the cultural and social impact of the Baby Boom generation on the American people.

  • UT.8. Standard: U.S. History II

    Students will understand the United States' domestic and international position in the Cold War era.

    • 8.1. Objective:

      Investigate how the postwar goals and action of the United States and the Soviet Union was manifested throughout the world.

      • 8.1.a. Indicator:

        Analyze the organization and operation of the United Nations.

      • 8.1.b. Indicator:

        Evaluate the effectiveness of American post-war foreign policy in Europe and the Soviet Union's reaction.

      • 8.1.c. Indicator:

        Examine the world's reaction to nuclear weapons.

    • 8.2. Objective:

      Analyze the Cold War ideology of the United States' involvement in Asia.

      • 8.2.a. Indicator:

        Explain America's reaction to the fall of China to Communism under Mao Zedong.

      • 8.2.b. Indicator:

        Trace American and United Nations involvement in the Korean Police Action.

      • 8.2.c. Indicator:

        Examine the various factors that drew the United States into conflict with North Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh.

      • 8.2.d. Indicator:

        Investigate how the Vietnam War changed the nature of warfare.

    • 8.3. Objective:

      Summarize the political, social, and economic reactions to the Cold War in the United States.

      • 8.3.a. Indicator:

        Examine the successes and failures of the various political administrations; i.e., Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Nixon.

      • 8.3.b. Indicator:

        Analyze the Great Society programs aimed at ending poverty.

      • 8.3.c. Indicator:

        Examine the impact of McCarthyism and Watergate on citizens' attitude toward government.

      • 8.3.d. Indicator:

        Trace the development of space exploration.

    • 8.4. Objective:

      Investigate the end of the Cold War and examine America's role in the changing world.

      • 8.4.a. Indicator:

        Compare differing American reactions to overseas military involvement.

      • 8.4.b. Indicator:

        Trace the events that resulted in the breakup of the USSR.

      • 8.4.c. Indicator:

        Examine the superpower status of the United States in the world.

  • UT.9. Standard: U.S. History II

    The students will understand the emergence and development of the human rights and culture in the modern era.

    • 9.1. Objective:

      Analyze how the civil rights movement affected United States society.

      • 9.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify the causes and consequences of civil rights legislation and court decisions.

      • 9.1.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the fight for political, economic, and social equality of women.

      • 9.1.c. Indicator:

        Analyze how the black civil rights movement utilized both social and political actions to achieve its goals.

      • 9.1.d. Indicator:

        Investigate the gains in civil rights made by the American Indian nations, Mexican Americans, and other ethnic groups in the last half of the twentieth century.

    • 9.2. Objective:

      Analyze the impact of the counter culture since the 1960's.

      • 9.2.a. Indicator:

        Trace the development of the counter culture from the anti-Vietnam movement.

      • 9.2.b. Indicator:

        Assess the development of mass media as the voice of the counter culture.

      • 9.2.c. Indicator:

        Examine the impact of drugs on the counter culture and the United States.

  • UT.10. Standard: U.S. History II

    The students will understand the economic and political changes of contemporary America.

    • 10.1. Objective:

      Analyze the economy of the contemporary United States.

      • 10.1.a. Indicator:

        Examine the effects of economics on modern society.

      • 10.1.b. Indicator:

        Trace the development of computers and the Internet and their impact on American business and globalization.

    • 10.2. Objective:

      Determine how politics was changed by the end of the Cold War.

      • 10.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine the 'Reagan Revolution,' its goals, success, and failures.

      • 10.2.b. Indicator:

        Determine the impact of environmentalism on the United States.

      • 10.2.c. Indicator:

        Analyze the impact of international terrorism on the United States.

  • UT.1. Standard: Geography for Life

    Students will understand the world in spatial terms.

    • 1.1. Objective:

      Use maps and other geographic tools to acquire information from a spatial perspective.

      • 1.1.a. Indicator:

        Explain the differences between major types of map projections.

      • 1.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine characteristics of maps and globes such as latitude, longitude, great circle routes, cardinal directions, compass rose, legend, scale, relief, grid system, and time zones.

      • 1.1.c. Indicator:

        Explain selected map concepts, including rotation, revolution, axis, seasons, solstice, equinox, and the earth/sun relationship of weather patterns.

      • 1.1.d. Indicator:

        Collect and interpret geographic data using maps, charts, population pyramids, cartograms, remote sensing, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    • 1.2. Objective:

      Explore the concept of mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments.

      • 1.2.a. Indicator:

        Define mental mapping.

      • 1.2.b. Indicator:

        Appraise mental maps, from simple to complex.

    • 1.3. Objective:

      Analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on the earth's surface.

      • 1.3.a. Indicator:

        Describe the importance and role of location in geographic studies.

      • 1.3.b. Indicator:

        Apply the geographic mode of inquiry (What? Where? How? And So What?) to world regions.

      • 1.3.c. Indicator:

        Evaluate the locational importance of human and natural resources using maps, satellite images, and databases.

      • 1.3.d. Indicator:

        Define absolute and relative location recognizing political and physical boundaries.

  • UT.2. Standard: Geography for Life

    Students will understand the human and physical characteristics of places and regions.

    • 2.1. Objective:

      Interpret place by its human and physical characteristics.

      • 2.1.a. Indicator:

        Examine human characteristics, including language, religion, population, political and economic systems, and quality of life.

      • 2.1.b. Indicator:

        Investigate physical characteristics such as landforms, climates, water cycle, vegetation, and animal life.

      • 2.1.c. Indicator:

        Recognize that places change over time.

    • 2.2. Objective:

      Assess how people create regions to interpret the earth's surface.

      • 2.2.a. Indicator:

        Recognize how peoples create regions to understand a large, complex, and changing world.

      • 2.2.b. Indicator:

        Characterize the similarities and differences within and between regions.

    • 2.3. Objective:

      Evaluate how culture and experience influence the way people live in places and regions.

      • 2.3.a. Indicator:

        List and define components of culture; e.g., race, gender roles, education, religion.

      • 2.3.b. Indicator:

        Explain the effects of cultural diffusion from country to country.

  • UT.3. Standard: Geography for Life

    Students will understand how physical processes shape the earth's surface.

    • 3.1. Objective:

      Examine the physical processes that shape the earth's surface.

      • 3.1.a. Indicator:

        Examine the role of plate tectonics in shaping the earth's surface.

      • 3.1.b. Indicator:

        Assess the external forces of weathering and erosion.

      • 3.1.c. Indicator:

        Explain the factors that combine to shape climatic and vegetation patterns on earth.

    • 3.2. Objective:

      Assess the characteristics and location of ecosystems.

      • 3.2.a. Indicator:

        Identify the characteristics of ecosystems.

      • 3.2.b. Indicator:

        Use geographic tools to identify the location and distribution of global ecosystems.

      • 3.2.c. Indicator:

        Compare regions of the earth with similar physical features, such as semi-arid regions in Utah with other semiarid regions of the world.

  • UT.4. Standard: Geography for Life

    Students will understand how human activities shape the earth's surface.

    • 4.1. Objective:

      Analyze the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on the earth's surface.

      • 4.1.a. Indicator:

        Describe how physical environments provide geographic advantage or disadvantage.

      • 4.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the importance of water to settlement patterns.

      • 4.1.c. Indicator:

        Explain why people who modify their physical environment in one place cause change in other places.

      • 4.1.d. Indicator:

        Investigate how people adapt to their environment.

    • 4.2. Objective:

      Analyze economic interdependence among regions and countries.

      • 4.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine economic networks, from local to global.

      • 4.2.b. Indicator:

        Assess how nations and cultures are linked through transportation, communication, language, currency, goods, and services.

    • 4.3. Objective:

      Investigate various forms of governance and how they affect peoples and landscapes.

      • 4.3.a. Indicator:

        Compare and contrast political systems within world regions.

      • 4.3.b. Indicator:

        Determine the role of government in contemporary and historical world issues.

  • UT.5. Standard: Geography for Life

    Students will understand the interaction of physical and human systems.

    • 5.1. Objective:

      Explore how humans change the environment and how the environment changes humans.

      • 5.1.a. Indicator:

        Evaluate the role of technology in modifying the physical environment.

      • 5.1.b. Indicator:

        Explain how historical events affect physical and human systems.

      • 5.1.c. Indicator:

        Discuss regional issues; e.g., desertification, deforestation, pollution.

      • 5.1.d. Indicator:

        Predict the potential effect of human modification on the physical environment.

    • 5.2. Objective:

      Assess the importance of natural and human resources.

      • 5.2.a. Indicator:

        Describe the roles of natural and human resources in daily life.

      • 5.2.b. Indicator:

        Identify worldwide distribution and use of human and natural resources.

      • 5.2.c. Indicator:

        Compare and contrast the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources.

      • 5.2.d. Indicator:

        Evaluate the role of energy resources as they are consumed, conserved, and recycled.

  • UT.6. Standard: Geography for Life

    Students will use geographic knowledge to connect to today's world.

    • 6.1. Objective:

      Apply geographic concepts to interpret the past.

      • 6.1.a. Indicator:

        Apply an understanding of cultures as an integrated whole including traditions, behavior patterns, and technologies.

      • 6.1.b. Indicator:

        Explain why and how individuals, groups, and institutions respond to continuity and change.

      • 6.1.c. Indicator:

        Relate economic development to the distribution of resources.

      • 6.1.d. Indicator:

        Recognize that both human choices and natural events have consequences.

    • 6.2. Objective:

      Apply geographic concepts to interpret the present and plan for the future.

      • 6.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine how the unequal distribution of resources effects economic development.

      • 6.2.b. Indicator:

        Investigate career opportunities available through the application of geography skills and concepts.

      • 6.2.c. Indicator:

        Participate in community activities respecting the environment and personal property.

  • UT.1. Standard: World Civilizations

    Students will gain an understanding of early civilizations and their contributions to the foundations of human culture.

    • 1.1. Objective:

      Speculate about the factors that led to civilized society.

      • 1.1.a. Indicator:

        Investigate hunters and gatherers.

      • 1.1.b. Indicator:

        Explore man's domestication of plants and animals.

      • 1.1.c. Indicator:

        Examine the role of irrigation in early agriculture.

    • 1.2. Objective:

      Assess the impact of geography on the locations of early civilizations.

      • 1.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine why early civilizations developed in river environments.

      • 1.2.b. Indicator:

        Evaluate the diffusion of civilizations.

    • 1.3. Objective:

      Examine the major characteristics of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and the Yellow River.

      • 1.3.a. Indicator:

        Analyze the social, political, and economic structure of ancient civilizations.

      • 1.3.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the technological advancements and writing systems that developed in early river valley cultures.

      • 1.3.c. Indicator:

        Identify the factors that led to the rise of cities.

  • UT.2. Standard: World Civilizations

    Students will comprehend the contributions of classical civilizations.

    • 2.1. Objective:

      Investigate the purpose and influence of religions and philosophies on classical civilizations of Greece, Rome, China, and India.

      • 2.1.a. Indicator:

        Examine the essential elements of the belief systems of Greek mythology, Judaism, Christianity, Confucianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam.

      • 2.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the diffusion of Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

      • 2.1.c. Indicator:

        Compare and contrast the major philosophies of the Greeks and Chinese.

    • 2.2. Objective:

      Analyze the development of classical political systems.

      • 2.2.a. Indicator:

        Contrast the evolution of Athenian democracy and Spartan rule.

      • 2.2.b. Indicator:

        Examine the consequences of Persian and Macedonian expansion.

      • 2.2.c. Indicator:

        Contrast Zhou feudalism, the Greek city-state, and the caste system of India.

      • 2.2.d. Indicator:

        Compare the development of the Roman and Han empires.

    • 2.3. Objective:

      Investigate the importance of the expansion of trade.

      • 2.3.a. Indicator:

        Identify routes of early colonization; e.g., Phoenician, Greek, Hellenistic, Korean/Japanese.

      • 2.3.b. Indicator:

        Examine the technological improvements in transportation over time.

      • 2.3.c. Indicator:

        Assess the importance of the Mediterranean and East Asian trade routes.

    • 2.4. Objective:

      Evaluate the significance of classical sculpture, architecture, and performing arts.

      • 2.4.a. Indicator:

        Examine the importance and influence of Greco-Roman art and architecture.

      • 2.4.b. Indicator:

        Assess the development of Indian and Chinese architecture and art.

      • 2.4.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the importance and influence of the performing arts on classical civilizations.

    • 2.5. Objective:

      Analyze the social organization of classical cultures.

      • 2.5.a. Indicator:

        Describe the role of slavery in Greece and Rome.

      • 2.5.b. Indicator:

        Compare the role of the family in Imperial Rome and Confucian China.

      • 2.5.c. Indicator:

        Explain the caste system of India.

      • 2.5.d. Indicator:

        Compare the treatment of women in China, Athens, Sparta, India, and Rome.

  • UT.3. Standard: World Civilizations

    Students will investigate the diffusion and interaction of cultures from the Classical Period through the Age of Discovery.

    • 3.1. Objective:

      Appraise the major characteristics of interregional contact that linked the people of Africa, Asia and Europe.

      • 3.1.a. Indicator:

        Describe the impact the Silk Road had on trade across Europe and Asia.

      • 3.1.b. Indicator:

        Discuss the importance of cross-Saharan migrations.

      • 3.1.c. Indicator:

        Examine the consequences of the Crusades.

      • 3.1.d. Indicator:

        Analyze the impact of Mongol invasion on Europe and Asia.

      • 3.1.e. Indicator:

        Examine the influence of Chinese culture on Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan.

    • 3.2. Objective:

      Assess the influence of advancing technologies on the development of societies.

      • 3.2.a. Indicator:

        Identify the significant technological developments in Tang China.

      • 3.2.b. Indicator:

        Investigate key technologies that diffused to Europe from Asia; e.g., gunpowder, printing.

      • 3.2.c. Indicator:

        Explain the consequences of the cannon and the longbow on European warfare and society.

      • 3.2.d. Indicator:

        Analyze the impact of movable type printing on Europe.

    • 3.3. Objective:

      Compare and contrast the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires to northern European trading empires.

      • 3.3.a. Indicator:

        Assess the expansion of Portugal and Spain on Africa, India, and Southwest Asia.

      • 3.3.b. Indicator:

        Examine the political and military conflict between the Spanish, Portugese, and the peoples of the New World.

      • 3.3.c. Indicator:

        Assess the impact of the exchange of ideas and goods on the New and Old Worlds.

      • 3.3.d. Indicator:

        Investigate French, Dutch, and English merchants' impact on European overseas expansion.

    • 3.4. Objective:

      Investigate the rise and development of the modern European political system.

      • 3.4.a. Indicator:

        Describe the political and economic importance of the growth of towns in northern Europe.

      • 3.4.b. Indicator:

        Explain the political and economic consequences of the rise of national monarchies.

      • 3.4.c. Indicator:

        Examine the influence of mercantilism and commercial capitalism on France, England, and the Netherlands.

  • UT.4. Standard: World Civilizations

    Students will understand the influence of revolution and social change in the transition from early modern to contemporary societies.

    • 4.1. Objective:

      Assess the importance of intellectual and cultural change on early modern society.

      • 4.1.a. Indicator:

        Compare the 'rebirth' of European culture during the Renaissance with the flowering Chinese culture of the Ming dynasty; i.e., literature, art, architecture, the humanities.

      • 4.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the key events and ideas of the Protestant Reformation, the Counter Reformation, and Neo-Confucianism.

      • 4.1.c. Indicator:

        Analyze the significant ideas and philosophies of the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment.

      • 4.1.d. Indicator:

        Examine the roles and conditions of men, women, and children in European monarchies.

    • 4.2. Objective:

      Investigate the role of revolution in the establishment of governmental systems.

      • 4.2.a. Indicator:

        Explain the political, economic, and social philosophies that lead to revolution.

      • 4.2.b. Indicator:

        Compare and contrast major world revolutions; e.g., American, French, Russian, Chinese.

    • 4.3. Objective:

      Analyze the economic transformation of production and distribution of goods in Europe.

      • 4.3.a. Indicator:

        Compare and contrast capitalism and socialism.

      • 4.3.b. Indicator:

        Explain the significance of the agricultural revolution.

      • 4.3.c. Indicator:

        Investigate the impact of the first and second Industrial Revolutions.

    • 4.4. Objective:

      Evaluate the impact of Western imperialism in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.

      • 4.4.a. Indicator:

        Examine the impact of Western imperialism on Africa.

      • 4.4.b. Indicator:

        Compare the reactions of China, India, and Japan to foreign domination.

  • UT.5. Standard: World Civilizations

    Students will understand the interaction of peoples in the global integration of the 20th century.

    • 5.1. Objective:

      Analyze the political and economic global issues in the first half of the 20th century.

      • 5.1.a. Indicator:

        Investigate the impact of totalitarianism on Europe; i.e., Stalinism, Italian fascism, German National Socialism.

      • 5.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the connections among WWI, the Great Depression, and WWII.

      • 5.1.c. Indicator:

        Assess the consequences of global war on the world.

    • 5.2. Objective:

      Investigate the impact of the Cold War on integration.

      • 5.2.a. Indicator:

        Explain the key elements of the Cold War.

      • 5.2.b. Indicator:

        Examine the independence movements in the African and Asian colonial world.

      • 5.2.c. Indicator:

        Determine the causes and effects of the collapse of the Soviet sphere.

    • 5.3. Objective:

      Investigate the creation of international organizations and global integration.

      • 5.3.a. Indicator:

        Assess the impact of economic and political organizations on global relations; e.g., World Trade Organization, United Nations, Olympics.

      • 5.3.b. Indicator:

        Examine the impact of advancements in worldwide communication/transportation; e.g., satellite communications, information technology/Internet, mass transportation.

      • 5.3.c. Indicator:

        Analyze the impact of military alliances; e.g., North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Warsaw Pact, United Nations Geneva Convention.

    • 5.4. Objective:

      Evaluate the impact of terrorism on the world's political, economic, and social systems.

      • 5.4.a. Indicator:

        Assess the base of terrorist networks and activities.

      • 5.4.b. Indicator:

        Examine the impact of terrorism on the lives of people.

      • 5.4.c. Indicator:

        Analyze the responses of political and economic institutions to terrorism.

  • UT.1. Standard: U.S. Government and Citizenship

    Students will understand the significance and impact of the Constitution on everyday life.

    • 1.1. Objective:

      Investigate the ideas and events that significantly influenced the creation of the United States Constitution.

      • 1.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify and summarize the philosophies that contributed to the Constitution; e.g., Machiavelli, Locke, Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton.

      • 1.1.b. Indicator:

        Identify and investigate the events that led to the creation of the Constitution.

      • 1.1.c. Indicator:

        Analyze how the idea of compromise affected the Constitution.

    • 1.2. Objective:

      Assess the essential ideas of United States constitutional government.

      • 1.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine the purposes and role of government.

      • 1.2.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the major ideas of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other writings; e.g., Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Mayflower Compact, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Iroquois Confederation.

      • 1.2.c. Indicator:

        Compare the Articles of Confederation to the United States Constitution.

    • 1.3. Objective:

      Determine the importance of popular sovereignty and limited government in a democratic society.

      • 1.3.a. Indicator:

        Explain how the separation of powers is maintained through checks and balances.

      • 1.3.b. Indicator:

        Describe how the federal system of government creates a division of power.

      • 1.3.c. Indicator:

        Determine how judicial review makes the Constitution a living document.

      • 1.3.d. Indicator:

        Examine how the rule of law affects everyday life.

      • 1.3.e. Indicator:

        Investigate the necessity for civic virtue.

    • 1.4. Objective:

      Investigate the organization and functions of the United States government.

      • 1.4.a. Indicator:

        Explain how legislative, executive, and judicial powers are distributed and shared among the three branches of national government.

      • 1.4.b. Indicator:

        Describe how the United States Congress makes laws.

      • 1.4.c. Indicator:

        Examine the ways in which the executive branch carries out laws.

      • 1.4.d. Indicator:

        Investigate how laws are interpreted by courts through an adversarial process; i.e., plaintiff, defendant.

  • UT.2. Standard: U.S. Government and Citizenship

    Students will understand the protections and privileges of individuals and groups in the United States.

    • 2.1. Objective:

      Assess the freedoms and rights guaranteed in the United States Constitution.

      • 2.1.a. Indicator:

        Determine the rights and liberties outlined in the Bill of Rights.

      • 2.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine how the Bill of Rights promotes civil rights and protects diversity.

      • 2.1.c. Indicator:

        Assess the significance of the First and Fourteenth Amendments.

    • 2.2. Objective:

      Analyze how civil rights and liberties have been changed through court decisions.

      • 2.2.a. Indicator:

        Examine how the Bill of Rights promotes a just legal system.

      • 2.2.b. Indicator:

        Summarize the differing interpretations of the strict versus loose constructionists.

      • 2.2.c. Indicator:

        Identify landmark cases and their impact on civil rights and individual liberties; e.g., Dred Scott, Plessey, Brown, Miranda, Gideon, Bakke.

  • UT.3. Standard: U.S. Government and Citizenship

    Students will understand the distribution of power in the national, state, and local government in the United States federal system.

    • 3.1. Objective:

      Determine the relationship between the national government and the states.

      • 3.1.a. Indicator:

        Identify and explain the concept of federalism.

      • 3.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the debate between federal supremacy and states' rights.

      • 3.1.c. Indicator:

        Assess the unique relationship between the sovereign American Indian nations and the United States government.

    • 3.2. Objective:

      Analyze the role of local government in the United States federal system.

      • 3.2.a. Indicator:

        Describe the powers given to local governments.

      • 3.2.b. Indicator:

        Investigate the structure and function of local government.

      • 3.2.c. Indicator:

        Assess how federal monies influence local policy and decision making.

      • 3.2.d. Indicator:

        Explore current issues affecting local governments; e.g., spending, state v. local control, land use.

      • 3.2.e. Indicator:

        Examine how public education is a function of state and local government.

  • UT.4. Standard: U.S. Government and Citizenship

    Students will understand the responsibilities of citizens in the United States.

    • 4.1. Objective:

      Investigate the responsibilities and obligations of a citizen.

      • 4.1.a. Indicator:

        Assess the need to obey laws.

      • 4.1.b. Indicator:

        Examine the election and voting process.

      • 4.1.c. Indicator:

        Examine the United States tax system.

      • 4.1.d. Indicator:

        Recognize the need for selective service in maintaining a military.

      • 4.1.e. Indicator:

        Investigate the major political parties and their ideas.

    • 4.2. Objective:

      Investigate ways in which responsible citizens take part in civic life.

      • 4.2.a. Indicator:

        Evaluate the need for civic dialogue in maintaining a democratic society; e.g., public meetings, mass meetings.

      • 4.2.b. Indicator:

        Participate in activities that promote the public good; e.g., the voting process, jury duty, community service.

    • 4.3. Objective:

      Assess methods for respectfully dealing with differences.

      • 4.3.a. Indicator:

        Analyze and evaluate conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation.

      • 4.3.b. Indicator:

        Develop an understanding of the role of civility in dealing with individual and group differences.

  • UT.5. Standard: U.S. Government and Citizenship

    Students will understand basic economic principles and how they influence everyday life.

    • 5.1. Objective:

      Explore major economic systems.

      • 5.1.a. Indicator:

        Explain how the scarcity and abundance of productive resources contribute to economic systems.

      • 5.1.b. Indicator:

        Develop an understanding of capitalism, communism, socialism, and mixed economic systems.

      • 5.1.c. Indicator:

        Examine the problems of newly developing economies in today's world.

    • 5.2. Objective:

      Determine how supply and demand affect the availability of goods and services.

      • 5.2.a. Indicator:

        Analyze the role that prices, incentives, and profits play in determining what is produced and distributed in a competitive market system.

      • 5.2.b. Indicator:

        Determine how scarcity and choice influence governmental economic decision making.

      • 5.2.c. Indicator:

        Examine how the private and public sectors contribute to an economic system.

      • 5.2.d. Indicator:

        Analyze the role of specialization and exchange in the economic process.

  • UT.6. Standard: U.S. Government and Citizenship

    Students will understand the relationship between the United States and the international system.

    • 6.1. Objective:

      Examine major government structures and functions outside the United States.

      • 6.1.a. Indicator:

        Explain the purpose of government and analyze how government powers are acquired, used, and justified.

      • 6.1.b. Indicator:

        Compare different political systems with that of the United States; e.g., dictatorship, democracy, theocracy, monarchy, totalitarianism.

      • 6.1.c. Indicator:

        Analyze and evaluate conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations.

    • 6.2. Objective:

      Evaluate how United States foreign policy affects the world.

      • 6.2.a. Indicator:

        Explain the powers that the Constitution gives to the president and Congress in foreign affairs, and how these powers have been used.

      • 6.2.b. Indicator:

        Describe the process by which United States foreign policy is made; e.g., federal agencies, domestic interest groups, the public, the media.

      • 6.2.c. Indicator:

        Analyze the various ways that United States foreign policy is carried out; e.g., diplomatic, economic, military, humanitarian.

      • 6.2.d. Indicator:

        Explain how United States domestic politics affect United States foreign policy.

    • 6.3. Objective:

      Explore how the United States influences other nations, and how other nations influence the United States.

      • 6.3.a. Indicator:

        Describe the impact of the United States' concepts of democracy and individual rights on the world.

      • 6.3.b. Indicator:

        Explain how developments in other nations affect United States society and life.

      • 6.3.c. Indicator:

        Describe the role of the United States in international organizations.

 
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