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Texas: 4th-Grade Standards

ß113.15. Social Studies, Grade 4, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012

Introduction

  1. In Grade 4, students examine the history of Texas from the early beginnings to the present within the context of influences of North America. Historical content focuses on Texas history, including the Texas Revolution, establishment of the Republic of Texas, and subsequent annexation to the United States. Students discuss important issues, events, and individuals of the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. Students conduct a thorough study of regions in Texas and North America resulting from human activity and from physical features. The location, distribution, and patterns of economic activities and settlement in Texas further enhance the concept of regions. Students describe how early American Indians in Texas and North America met their basic economic needs. Students identify motivations for European exploration and colonization and reasons for the establishment of Spanish settlements and missions. Students explain how American Indians governed themselves and identify characteristics of Spanish colonial and Mexican governments in Texas. Students recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge to the Texas Flag. Students identify the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas and describe the impact of science and technology on life in the state. Students use critical-thinking skills to identify cause-and-effect relationships, compare and contrast, and make generalizations and predictions.
  2. To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material such as nonfiction texts, primary sources, biographies, folklore, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, online tours, and local and state preservation societies.
  3. The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
  4. Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
  5. Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).
  6. Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  7. State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
    • Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
    • Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
  8. Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

Knowledge and skills

  1. History.
    The student understands the origins, similarities, and differences of American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the possible origins of American Indian groups in Texas and North America;
    • b. identify American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration such as the Lipan Apache, Karankawa, Caddo, and Jumano;
    • c. describe the regions in which American Indians lived and identify American Indian groups remaining in Texas such as the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo, Alabama-Coushatta, and Kickapoo; and
    • d. compare the ways of life of American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration.
  2. History.
    The student understands the origins, similarities, and differences of American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the possible origins of American Indian groups in Texas and North America;
    • b. identify American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration such as the Lipan Apache, Karankawa, Caddo, and Jumano;
    • c. describe the regions in which American Indians lived and identify American Indian groups remaining in Texas such as the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo, Alabama-Coushatta, and Kickapoo; and
    • d. compare the ways of life of American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration.
  3. History.
    The student understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of Texas and North America. The student is expected to:
    • a. summarize motivations for European exploration and settlement of Texas, including economic opportunity, competition, and the desire for expansion;
    • b. identify the accomplishments and explain the impact of significant explorers, including Cabeza de Vaca; Francisco Coronado; and René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, on the settlement of Texas;
    • c. explain when, where, and why the Spanish established settlements and Catholic missions in Texas as well as important individuals such as José de Escandón;
    • d. identify Texas' role in the Mexican War of Independence and the war's impact on the development of Texas; and
    • e. identify the accomplishments and explain the economic motivations and impact of significant empresarios, including Stephen F. Austin and Martín de León, on the settlement of Texas.
  4. History.
    The student understands the importance of the Texas Revolution, the Republic of Texas, and the annexation of Texas to the United States. The student is expected to:
    • a. analyze the causes, major events, and effects of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of the Alamo, the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Runaway Scrape, and the Battle of San Jacinto;
    • b. summarize the significant contributions of individuals such as Texians William B. Travis, James Bowie, David Crockett, George Childress, and Sidney Sherman; Tejanos Juan Antonio Padilla, Carlos Espalier, Juan N. Seguín, Plácido Benavides, and José Francisco Ruiz; Mexicans Antonio López de Santa Anna and Vicente Filisola; and non-combatants Susanna Dickinson and Enrique Esparza;
    • c. identify leaders important to the founding of Texas as a republic and state, including José Antonio Navarro, Sam Houston, Mirabeau Lamar, and Anson Jones;
    • d. describe the successes, problems, and organizations of the Republic of Texas such as the establishment of a constitution, economic struggles, relations with American Indians, and the Texas Rangers; and
    • e. explain the events that led to the annexation of Texas to the United States, including the impact of the U.S.-Mexican War.
  5. History
    The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in Texas during the last half of the 19th century. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Texas;
    • b. explain the growth, development, and impact of the cattle industry, including contributions made by Charles Goodnight, Richard King, and Lizzie Johnson;
    • c. identify the impact of railroads on life in Texas, including changes to cities and major industries; and
    • d.  examine the effects upon American Indian life resulting from changes in Texas, including the Red River War, building of U.S. forts and railroads, and loss of buffalo.
  6. History
    The student understands important issues, events, and individuals of the 20th century in Texas. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the impact of various issues and events on life in Texas such as urbanization, increased use of oil and gas, the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II;
    • b. explain the development and impact of the oil and gas industry upon industrialization and urbanization in Texas, including important places and people such as Spindletop and Pattillo Higgins; and
    • c. identify the accomplishments of notable individuals such as John Tower, Scott Joplin, Audie Murphy, Cleto Rodríguez, Stanley Marcus, Bessie Coleman, Raul A. Gonzalez Jr., and other local notable individuals.
  7. Geography.
    The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
    • a. apply geographic tools, including grid systems, legends, symbols, scales, and compass roses, to construct and interpret maps; and
    • b. translate geographic data, population distribution, and natural resources into a variety of formats such as graphs and maps.
  8. Geography.
    The student understands the concept of regions. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe a variety of regions in Texas and the United States such as political, population, and economic regions that result from patterns of human activity;
    • b. identify, locate, and compare the geographic regions of Texas (Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains), including their landforms, climate, and vegetation; and
    • c. compare the geographic regions of Texas (Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains) with regions of the United States and other parts of the world.
  9. Geography.
    The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify and explain clusters and patterns of settlement in Texas at different time periods such as prior to the Texas Revolution, after the building of the railroads, and following World War II;
    • b. describe and explain the location and distribution of various towns and cities in Texas, past and present; and
    • c. explain the geographic factors such as landforms and climate that influence patterns of settlement and the distribution of population in Texas, past and present.
  10. Geography.
    The student understands how people adapt to and modify their environment. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe ways people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as timber clearing, agricultural production, wetlands drainage, energy production, and construction of dams;
    • b. identify reasons why people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as the use of natural resources to meet basic needs, facilitate transportation, and enhance recreational activities; and
    • c. compare the positive and negative consequences of human modification of the environment in Texas, past and present, both governmental and private, such as economic development and the impact on habitats and wildlife as well as air and water quality.
  11. Economics.
    The student understands the basic economic activities of early societies in Texas and North America. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the economic activities various early American Indian groups in Texas and North America used to meet their needs and wants such as farming, trading, and hunting; and
    • b. explain the economic activities early immigrants to Texas used to meet their needs and wants.
  12. Economics.
    The student understands the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system in Texas. The student is expected to:
    • a. describe the development of the free enterprise system in Texas;
    • b. describe how the free enterprise system works, including supply and demand; and
    • c. give examples of the benefits of the free enterprise system such as choice and opportunity.
  13. Economics.
    The student understands patterns of work and economic activities in Texas. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain how people in different regions of Texas earn their living, past and present, through a subsistence economy and providing goods and services;
    • b. explain how geographic factors such as climate, transportation, and natural resources have influenced the location of economic activities in Texas;
    • c. analyze the effects of exploration, immigration, migration, and limited resources on the economic development and growth of Texas;
    • d. describe the impact of mass production, specialization, and division of labor on the economic growth of Texas;
    • e. explain how developments in transportation and communication have influenced economic activities in Texas; and
    • f. explain the impact of American ideas about progress and equality of opportunity on the economic development and growth of Texas.
  14. Economics
    The student understands how Texas, the United States, and other parts of the world are economically interdependent. The student is expected to:
    • a.  identify ways in which technological changes in areas such as transportation and communication have resulted in increased interdependence among Texas, the United States, and the world;
    • b. identify oil and gas, agricultural, and technological products of Texas that are purchased to meet needs in the United States and around the world; and
    • c. explain how Texans meet some of their needs through the purchase of products from the United States and the rest of the world.
  15. Government.
    The student understands how people organized governments in different ways during the early development of Texas. The student is expected to:
    • a. compare how various American Indian groups such as the Caddo and the Comanche governed themselves; and
    • b. identify and compare characteristics of the Spanish colonial government and the early Mexican governments and their influence on inhabitants of Texas.
  16. Government.
    The student understands important ideas in historical documents of Texas and the United States. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the purposes and explain the importance of the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Texas Constitution, and other documents such as the Meusebach-Comanche Treaty;
    • b. identify and explain the basic functions of the three branches of government according to the Texas Constitution; and
    • c. identify the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights (Celebrate Freedom Week).
  17. Citizenship.
    The student understands important customs, symbols, and celebrations of Texas. The student is expected to:
    • a. explain the meaning of various patriotic symbols and landmarks of Texas, including the six flags that flew over Texas, the San Jacinto Monument, the Alamo, and various missions;
    • b. sing or recite "Texas, Our Texas";
    • c. recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge to the Texas Flag; and
    • d. describe the origins and significance of state celebrations such as Texas Independence Day and Juneteenth.
  18. Citizenship.
    The student understands the importance of active individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify important individuals who have participated voluntarily in civic affairs at state and local levels such as Adina de Zavala and Clara Driscoll;
    • b. explain how individuals can participate voluntarily in civic affairs at state and local levels through activities such as holding public officials to their word, writing letters, and participating in historic preservation and service projects;
    • c. explain the duty of the individual in state and local elections such as being informed and voting;
    • d. identify the importance of historical figures and important individuals who modeled active participation in the democratic process such as Sam Houston, Barbara Jordan, Lorenzo de Zavala, Ann Richards, Sam Rayburn, Henry B. González, James A. Baker III, Wallace Jefferson, and other local individuals; and
    • e. explain how to contact elected and appointed leaders in state and local governments.
  19. Citizenship
    The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify leaders in state, local, and national governments, including the governor, local members of the Texas Legislature, the local mayor, U.S. senators, local U.S. representatives, and Texans who have been president of the United States; and
    • b. identify leadership qualities of state and local leaders, past and present.
  20. Culture.
    The student understands the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify the similarities and differences among various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in Texas;
    • b. identify customs, celebrations, and traditions of various cultural, regional, and local groups in Texas such as Cinco de Mayo, Oktoberfest, the Strawberry Festival, and Fiesta San Antonio; and
    • c. summarize the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the development of Texas such as Lydia Mendoza, Chelo Silva, and Julius Lorenzo Cobb Bledsoe.
  21. Science, technology, and society.
    The student understands the impact of science and technology on life in Texas. The student is expected to:
    • a. identify famous inventors and scientists such as Gail Borden, Joseph Glidden, Michael DeBakey, and Millie Hughes-Fulford and their contributions;
    • b. describe how scientific discoveries and innovations such as in aerospace, agriculture, energy, and technology have benefited individuals, businesses, and society in Texas; and
    • c. predict how future scientific discoveries and technological innovations might affect life in Texas.
  22. Social studies skills.
    The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
    • a.  differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; documents; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas;
    • b. analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
    • c.  organize and interpret information in outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;
    • d. identify different points of view about an issue, topic, historical event, or current event; and
    • e. use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.
  23. Social studies skills.
    The student communicates in oral, visual, and written forms. The student is expected to:
    • a. use social studies terminology correctly;
    • b. incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication;
    • c. express ideas orally based on research and experiences;
    • d. create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies; and
    • e. use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.
  24. Social studies skills.
    The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
    • a. use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
    • b. use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, generate options, predict outcomes, take action to implement a decision, and reflect on the effectiveness of the decision.
 
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