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Rhode Island's Twelfth Grade Standards

  • RI.1. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: History

    Chronological Thinking.

    • 1.a. Assessment Target:

      The student distinguishes between past, present, and future time.

    • 1.b. Assessment Target:

      The student identifies in historical narratives the temporal structure of a historical narrative or story.

    • 1.c. Assessment Target:

      The student establishes temporal order in constructing historical narratives of their own.

    • 1.d. Assessment Target:

      The student measures and calculates calendar time.

    • 1.e. Assessment Target:

      The student interprets data presented in time lines.

    • 1.f. Assessment Target:

      The student reconstructs patterns of historical succession and duration.

    • 1.g. Assessment Target:

      The student compares alternative models for periodization.

  • RI.2. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: History

    Historical Comprehension.

    • 2.a. Assessment Target:

      The student reconstructs the literal meaning of a historical passage.

    • 2.b. Assessment Target:

      The student identifies the central question(s) the historical narrative addresses.

    • 2.c. Assessment Target:

      The student reads historical narratives imaginatively.

    • 2.d. Assessment Target:

      The student evidences historical perspectives.

    • 2.e. Assessment Target:

      The student draws upon data in historical maps.

    • 2.f. Assessment Target:

      The student utilizes visual and mathematical data presented in charts, tables, pie and bar graphs, flow charts, Venn diagrams, and other graphic organizers.

    • 2.g. Assessment Target:

      The student draws upon visual, literary, and musical sources.

  • RI.3. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: History

    Historical Analysis and Interpretation.

    • 3.a. Assessment Target:

      The student identifies the author or source of the historical document or narrative.

    • 3.b. Assessment Target:

      The student compares and contrasts differing sets of ideas, values, personalities, behaviors, and institutions.

    • 3.c. Assessment Target:

      The student differentiates between historical facts and historical interpretations.

    • 3.d. Assessment Target:

      The student considers multiple perspectives.

    • 3.e. Assessment Target:

      The student analyzes cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation, including the importance of the individual, the influence of ideas, and the role of chance.

    • 3.f. Assessment Target:

      The student challenges arguments of historical inevitability.

    • 3.g. Assessment Target:

      The student compares competing historical narratives.

    • 3.h. Assessment Target:

      The student holds interpretations of history as tentative.

    • 3.i. Assessment Target:

      The student evaluates major debates among historians.

    • 3.j. Assessment Target:

      The student hypothesizes the influence of the past.

  • RI.4. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: History

    Historical Research Capabilities.

    • 4.a. Assessment Target:

      The student formulates historical questions.

    • 4.b. Assessment Target:

      The student obtains historical data.

    • 4.c. Assessment Target:

      The student interrogates historical data.

    • 4.d. Assessment Target:

      The student identifies the gaps in the available records, marshal contextual knowledge and perspectives of the time and place, and construct a sound historical interpretation.

  • RI.5. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: History

    Historical Issues: Analysis and Decision Making.

    • 5.a. Assessment Target:

      The student identifies the issues and problems in the past.

    • 5.b. Assessment Target:

      The student marshals evidence of antecedent circumstances and contemporary factors contributing to problems and alternative courses of action.

    • 5.c. Assessment Target:

      The student identifies relevant historical antecedents.

    • 5.d. Assessment Target:

      The student evaluates alternative courses of action.

    • 5.e. Assessment Target:

      The student formulates a position or course of action on an issue.

    • 5.f. Assessment Target:

      The student evaluates the implementation of a decision.

  • RI.1. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 1: Three Worlds Meet (Beginning 1620).

    • 1.a. Assessment Target:

      The student compares characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450.

    • 1.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how early European exploration and colonization resulted in cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected peoples.

  • RI.2. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 2: Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763).

    • 2.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved Africans to their colonies, and how Europeans struggled for control on North America and the Caribbean.

    • 2.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how political, religious, and social institutions emerged in the English colonies.

    • 2.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies, and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas.

  • RI.3. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 3: Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s).

    • 3.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in forging the revolutionary movement, and the reasons for the American victory.

    • 3.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy and society.

    • 3.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the institutions and practices of government created during the Revolution and how they were revised between 1787 and 1815 to create the foundation of the American political system based on the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

  • RI.4. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 4: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861).

    • 4.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the territorial expansion of the United States between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans.

    • 4.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions.

    • 4.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the extension, restriction, and reorganization of political democracy after 1800.

    • 4.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period.

  • RI.5. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877).

    • 5.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the causes of the Civil War.

    • 5.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people.

    • 5.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how various reconstruction plans succeeded or failed.

  • RI.6. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 6: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    • 6.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed the American people.

    • 6.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity.

    • 6.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes.

    • 6.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands Federal Indian policy and the United States foreign policy after the Civil War.

  • RI.7. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 7: The Emergency of Modern America (1890-1930).

    • 7.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption.

    • 7.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the changing role of the United States in world affairs through World War I.

    • 7.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how the United States changed from the end of World War I to the eve of the Great Depression.

  • RI.8. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 8: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    • 8.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the causes of the Great Depression and how it affected American Society.

    • 8.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state.

    • 8.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs.

  • RI.9. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 9: Postwar United States (1945 to early 1970s).

    • 9.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the economic boom and social transformation of postwar United States.

    • 9.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how the Cold War and conflicts in Korea and Vietnam influenced domestic and international politics.

    • 9.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands domestic policies after World War II.

    • 9.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the struggle for racial and gender equality and the extension of civil Liberties.

  • RI.10. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: United States History

    Era 10: Contemporary United States (1968 to the Present).

    • 10.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands recent developments in foreign and domestic polities.

    • 10.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands economic, social, and cultural developments in contemporary United States.

  • RI.1. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    Era 1: The Beginnings of Human Society.

    • 1.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the biological and cultural processes that gave rise to the earliest human communities.

    • 1.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the process that led to the emergency of agricultural societies around the world.

  • RI.2. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    Era 2: Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples, 4000-1000 BCE.

    • 2.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the biological and cultural processes that gave rise to the earliest human communities.

    • 2.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the processes that led to the emergency of agricultural societies around the world.

    • 2.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the major characteristics of civilization and how civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley.

    • 2.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE.

  • RI.3. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    Era 3: Classical Traditions, Major Religions, and Giant Empires, 1000 BCE-300 CE.

    • 3.a. Assessment Target: The student knows and understands the innovation and change from 1000-600 BCE

      horses, ships, iron, and monotheistic faith.

    • 3.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the emergency of Aegean civilization and how interrelations developed among peoples of the eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia, 600-200 BCE.

    • 3.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how major religions and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean basin, China, and India, 500 BCE-300 CE.

    • 3.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the development of early agrarian civilizations in Mesoamerica.

    • 3.e. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands major global trends from 1000 BCE-300 CE.

  • RI.4. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    Era 4: Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter, 300-1000 CE.

    • 4.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath, 300-700 CE.

    • 4.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the causes and consequences of the rise of Islamic civilization in the 7th-10th centuries.

    • 4.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang dynasty, 600-900 CE.

    • 4.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the search for political, social, and cultural redefinition in Europe, 500-1000 CE.

    • 4.e. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania.

    • 4.f. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the first millennium CE.

    • 4.g. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the major global trends from 3000-1000 CE.

  • RI.5. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    Era 5: Intensified Hemispheric Interactions, 1000-1500 CE.

    • 5.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the maturing of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange in an era of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion.

    • 5.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the redefining of European society and culture, 1000-1300 CE.

    • 5.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the rise of the Mongol empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples, 1200-1300.

    • 5.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries.

    • 5.e. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia, 1300-1450.

    • 5.f. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas, 1000-1500.

    • 5.g. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the major global trends from 1000-1500 CE.

  • RI.6. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    Era 6: The Emergency of the First Global Age, 1450-1770.

    • 6.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how the transoceanic inter-linking of all major regions of the world from 1450-1600 led to global transformations.

    • 6.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication, 1450-1750.

    • 6.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries.

    • 6.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe and the Americas, 1500-1750.

    • 6.e. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion.

    • 6.f. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the major global trends from 1450-1770.

  • RI.7. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    Era 7: An Age of Revolutions 1750-1914.

    • 7.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    • 7.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions 1700-1850.

    • 7.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the transformation of Eurasian societies in an era of global trade and rising European power, 1750-1870.

    • 7.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands patterns of nationalism, state building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas, 1830-1914.

    • 7.e. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic domination, 1800-1914.

    • 7.f. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the major global trends from 1750-1914.

  • RI.8. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    Era 8: A Half-Century of Crisis and Achievement, 1900-1945.

    • 8.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early century.

    • 8.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the causes and global consequences of World War I.

    • 8.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the search for peace and stability in the 1920s and 1930s.

    • 8.d. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the causes and global consequences of World War II.

    • 8.e. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II.

  • RI.9. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    Era 9: The 20th Century Since 1945: Promises and Paradoxes.

    • 9.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up.

    • 9.b. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world.

    • 9.c. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the major global trends since World War II.

  • RI.10. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: World History

    World History Across the Eras.

    • 10.a. Assessment Target:

      The student knows and understands the long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history.

  • RI.1. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Civics and Government

    Civic Life, Politics, and Government.

    • 1.a. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the meaning of the terms civic life, politics, and government.

    • 1.b. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the major arguments advanced for the necessity of politics and government.

    • 1.c. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited government.

    • 1.d. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance of the rule of law and on the sources, purposes, and functions of law.

    • 1.e. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain and evaluate the argument that civil society is a prerequisite of limited government.

    • 1.f. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain and evaluate competing ideas regarding the relationship between political and economic freedoms.

    • 1.g. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain different uses of the term constitution and to distinguish between governments with a constitution and a constitutional government.

    • 1.h. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the various purposes served by constitutions.

    • 1.i. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on what conditions contribute to the establishment and maintenance of constitutional government.

    • 1.j. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to describe the major characteristics of systems of shared powers and of parliamentary systems.

    • 1.k. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the advantages and disadvantages of confederal, federal, and unitary systems of government.

    • 1.l. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on how well alternative forms of representation serve the purposes of constitutional government.

  • RI.2. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Civics and Government

    Foundations of the American Political System.

    • 2.a. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the central ideas of American constitutional government and their history.

    • 2.b. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the extent to which Americans have internalized the values and principles of the Constitution and attempted to make its ideals realities.

    • 2.c. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain how the following characteristics tend to distinguish American society from most other societies.

    • 2.d. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance of voluntarism in American society.

    • 2.e. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the contemporary role of organized groups in American social and political life.

    • 2.f. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding diversity in American life.

    • 2.g. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the importance of shared political and civic beliefs and values to the maintenance of constitutional democracy in an increasingly diverse American society.

    • 2.h. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to describe the character of American political conflict and explain factors that usually prevent it or lower its intensity.

    • 2.i. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the meaning of the terms liberal and democracy in the phrase liberal democracy.

    • 2.j. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain how and why ideas of classical republicanism are reflected in the values and principles of American constitutional democracy.

    • 2.k. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on what the fundamental values and principles of American political life are and their importance to the maintenance of constitutional democracy.

    • 2.l. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues in which fundamental values and principles may be in conflict.

    • 2.m. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about issues concerning the disparities between American ideals and realities.

  • RI.3. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Civics and Government

    Purposes, Values, and Principles of American Democracy.

    • 3.a. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain how the United States Constitution grants and distributes power to national and state government and how it seeks to prevent the abuse of power.

    • 3.b. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the distribution of powers and responsibilities within the federal system.

    • 3.c. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the purposes, organization, and functions of the institutions of the national government.

    • 3.d. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the major responsibilities of the national government for domestic and foreign policy.

    • 3.e. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding how government should raise money to pay for its operations and services.

    • 3.f. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the proper relationship between the national government and the state and local governments.

    • 3.g. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the relationships between state and local governments and citizen access to those governments.

    • 3.h. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to identify the major responsibilities of their state and local governments and evaluate how well they are being fulfilled.

    • 3.i. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the role and importance of law in the American political system.

    • 3.j. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on current issues regarding judicial protection of individual rights.

    • 3.k. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about how the public agenda is set.

    • 3.l. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the role of public opinion in American politics.

    • 3.m. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the influence of the media on American political life.

    • 3.n. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the roles of political parties, campaigns, and elections in American politics.

    • 3.o. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the contemporary roles of associations and groups in American politics.

    • 3.p. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the formation and implementation of public policy.

  • RI.4. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Civics and Government

    World Affairs.

    • 4.a. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain how the world is organized politically.

    • 4.b. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain how nation-states interact with each other.

    • 4.c. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the purposes and functions of international organizations in the world today.

    • 4.d. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the principal foreign policy positions of the United States and evaluate their consequences.

    • 4.e. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about how United States foreign policy is made and the means by which it is carried out.

    • 4.f. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on foreign policy issues in light of American national interests, values, and principles.

    • 4.g. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the impact of American political ideas on the world.

    • 4.h. Assessment Target:

      Student should be evaluate, take, and defend positions about the effects of significant international political developments on the United States and other nations.

    • 4.i. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the effects of significant economic, technological, and cultural developments in the United States and other nations.

    • 4.j. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about what the response of American government at all levels should be to world demographic and environmental developments.

    • 4.k. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about what the relationship of the United States should be to international organizations.

  • RI.5. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Civics and Government

    Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy.

    • 5.a. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the meaning of Citizenship in the United States.

    • 5.b. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the criteria used for naturalization.

    • 5.c. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issue involving personal rights.

    • 5.d. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding political rights.

    • 5.e. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues involving economic rights.

    • 5.f. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the relationship among personal, political, and economic rights.

    • 5.g. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the proper scope and limits of rights.

    • 5.h. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the personal responsibilities of citizens in American constitutional democracy.

    • 5.i. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding civic responsibilities of citizens in American constitutional democracy.

    • 5.j. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance to American constitutional democracy of dispositions that lead individuals to become independent members of society.

    • 5.k. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance to American constitutional democracy of dispositions that foster respect for individual worth and human dignity.

    • 5.l. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance to American constitutional democracy of dispositions that incline citizens to public affairs.

    • 5.m. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance to American constitutional democracy of dispositions that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in public affairs.

    • 5.n. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the relationship between politics and the attainment of individual and public goals.

    • 5.o. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the difference between political and social participation.

    • 5.p. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the means that citizens should use to monitor and influence the formation and implementation of public policy.

    • 5.q. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the functions of leadership in an American constitutional democracy.

    • 5.r. Assessment Target:

      Student should be able to explain the importance of knowledge to competent and responsible participation in American democracy.

  • RI.1. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Economics.

    • 1.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that productive resources are limited.

    • 1.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that effective decision making requires comparing the additional costs of alternatives with the additional benefits.

    • 1.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that different methods can be used to allocate goods and services.

    • 1.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that people respond predictably to positive and negative incentives.

    • 1.e. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that voluntary exchange occurs only when all participating parties expect to gain.

    • 1.f. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that when individuals, regions, and nations specialize in what they can produce at the lowest cost and then trade with others, both production and consumption increase.

    • 1.g. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that markets exist when buyers and sellers interact.

    • 1.h. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that prices send signals and provide incentives to buyers and sellers.

    • 1.i. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that competition among sellers lowers costs and prices, and encourages producers to produce more of what consumers are willing and able to buy.

    • 1.j. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that institutions evolve in market economies to help individuals and groups accomplish their goals.

    • 1.k. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that money makes it easier to trade, borrow, save, invest, and compare the value of goods and services.

    • 1.l. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that interest rates, adjusted for inflation, rise and fall to balance the amount saved with the amount borrowed, which affects the allocation of scarce resources between present and future uses.

    • 1.m. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that income for most people is determined by the market value of the productive resources they sell.

    • 1.n. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that entrepreneurs are people who take the risks of organizing productive resources to make goods and services.

    • 1.o. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that investment in factories, machinery, new technology, and in the health, education, and training of people can raise future standards of living.

    • 1.p. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that there is an economic role for government in a market economy whenever the benefits of a government policy outweigh its costs.

    • 1.q. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that costs of government policies sometimes exceed benefits.

    • 1.r. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that a nation's overall levels of income, employment, and prices are determined by the interaction of spending and production decisions made by all households, firms, government agencies, and others in the economy.

    • 1.s. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that unemployment imposes costs on individuals and nations.

    • 1.t. Assessment Target:

      Student understands that federal government budgetary policy and the Federal Reserve System's monetary policy influence the overall levels of employment, output, and prices.

  • RI.1. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Geography

    The World in Spatial Terms.

    • 1.a. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how to use maps and other graphic representations to depict geographic problems.

    • 1.b. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how to use technologies to represent and interpret Earth's physical and human systems.

    • 1.c. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how to use geographic representations and tools to analyze, explain, and solve geographic problems.

    • 1.d. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how to use mental maps of physical and human features of the world to answer complex geographic questions.

    • 1.e. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how mental maps reflect the human perception of places.

    • 1.f. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how mental maps influence spatial and environmental decision-making.

    • 1.g. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the generalizations that describe and explain spatial interaction.

    • 1.h. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the models that describe patterns of spatial organization.

    • 1.i. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the spatial behavior of people.

    • 1.j. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how to apply concepts and models of spatial organization to make decisions.

  • RI.2. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Geography

    Places and Regions.

    • 2.a. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the meaning and significance of places.

    • 2.b. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the changing physical and human characteristics of places.

    • 2.c. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how relationships between humans and the physical environment lead to the formation of places and to a sense of personal and community identity.

    • 2.d. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how multiple criteria can be used to define a region.

    • 2.e. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the structure of regional systems.

    • 2.f. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the ways in which physical and human regional systems are interconnected.

    • 2.g. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how to use regions to analyze geographic issues.

    • 2.h. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands why places and regions serve as symbols for individuals and society.

    • 2.i. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands why different groups of people within a society view places and regions differently.

    • 2.j. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how changing perceptions of places and regions reflect cultural change.

  • RI.3. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Geography

    Physical Systems.

    • 3.a. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the dynamics of the four basic components of Earth's physical systems; the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere.

    • 3.b. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the interaction of Earth's physical systems.

    • 3.c. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the spatial variation in the consequences of physical processes across Earth's surface.

    • 3.d. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the distribution and characteristics of ecosystems.

    • 3.e. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the biodiversity and productivity of ecosystems.

    • 3.f. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the importance of ecosystems in peoples understanding of environmental issues.

  • RI.4. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Geography

    Human Systems.

    • 4.a. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands trends in world population numbers and patterns.

    • 4.b. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the impact of human migration on physical human systems.

    • 4.c. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the impact of culture on ways of life in different regions.

    • 4.d. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how cultures shape the character of a region.

    • 4.e. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the spatial characteristics of the processes of cultural convergence and divergence.

    • 4.f. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the classification, characteristics, and spatial distribution of economic systems.

    • 4.g. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how places of various size function as centers of economic activity.

    • 4.h. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the increasing economic interdependence of the world's countries.

    • 4.i. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the functions, sizes, and spatial arrangements of urban area.

    • 4.j. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the differing characteristics of settlement in developing and developed countries.

    • 4.k. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the processes that change the internal structure of urban areas.

    • 4.l. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the evolving forms of present-day urban area.

    • 4.m. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands why and how cooperation and conflict are involved in shaping the distribution of social, political, and economic spaces on Earth at different scale .

    • 4.n. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the impact of multiple spatial divisions on people's daily lives.

    • 4.o. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how differing points of view and self-interests play a role in conflict over territory and resources.

  • RI.5. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Geography

    Environment and Society.

    • 5.a. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the role of technology in the capacity of the physical environment to accommodate human modification.

    • 5.b. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the significance of the global impacts of human modification of the physical environment.

    • 5.c. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how to apply appropriate models and information to understand environmental problems.

    • 5.d. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how changes in the physical environment can diminish its capacity to support human activity.

    • 5.e. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands strategies to respond to constraints placed on human systems by the physical environment.

    • 5.f. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how humans perceive and react to natural hazards.

    • 5.g. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how the spatial distribution of resources affects patterns of human settlement.

    • 5.h. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how resource development and use change over time.

    • 5.i. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the geographic results of policies and programs for resource use and management.

  • RI.6. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Geography

    Uses of Geography.

    • 6.a. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how processes of spatial change affect events and conditions.

    • 6.b. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how changing perceptions of places and environments affect the spatial behavior of people.

    • 6.c. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands the fundamental role that geographical context has played in affecting events in history.

    • 6.d. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how different points of view influence the development of policies designed to use and manage Earth's resources.

    • 6.e. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands contemporary issues in the context of spatial and environmental perspectives.

    • 6.f. Assessment Target:

      Student knows and understands how to use geographic knowledge, skills, and perspectives to analyze problems and make decisions.

  • RI.1. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Introduction and Research Methods.

    • 1.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands contemporary perspectives used by psychologists to understand behavior and mental processes in context.

    • 1.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands major subfields and career opportunities that comprise psychology.

    • 1.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands research strategies used by psychologists to explore behavior and mental processes.

    • 1.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands purpose and basic concepts of statistics.

    • 1.e. Assessment Target:

      Student understands ethical issues in research with human and other animals that are important to psychologists.

    • 1.f. Assessment Target:

      Student understands development of psychology as an empirical science.

  • RI.2. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Biological Bases of Behavior.

    • 2.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands structure and function of the neuron.

    • 2.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands organization of the nervous system.

    • 2.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands hierarchical organization of the structure and function of the brain.

    • 2.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands technologies and clinical methods for studying the brain.

    • 2.e. Assessment Target:

      Student understands specialized functions of the brain's hemispheres.

    • 2.f. Assessment Target:

      Student understands structure and function of the endocrine system.

    • 2.g. Assessment Target:

      Student understands how heredity interacts with environment to influence behavior.

    • 2.h. Assessment Target:

      Student understands how psychological mechanisms are influenced by evolution.

  • RI.3. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Sensation and Perception.

    • 3.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands basic concepts explaining the capabilities and limitations of sensory processes.

    • 3.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands interaction of the person and the environment in determining perception.

    • 3.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands nature of attention.

  • RI.4. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Motivation and Emotion.

    • 4.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands motivational concepts.

    • 4.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands biological and environmental cues instigating basic drives or motives.

    • 4.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands major theories of motivation.

    • 4.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands interaction of biological and cultural factors in the development of motives.

    • 4.e. Assessment Target:

      Student understands role of values and expectancies in determining choice and strength of motivation.

    • 4.f. Assessment Target:

      Student understands physiological, affective, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of emotions and the interactions among these aspects.

    • 4.g. Assessment Target:

      Student understands effects of motivation and emotion on perception, cognition, and behavior.

  • RI.5. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Stress, Coping, and Health.

    • 5.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands sources of stress.

    • 5.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands physiological reactions to stress.

    • 5.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands psychological reactions to stress.

    • 5.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands cognitive and behavioral strategies for dealing with stress and promoting health.

  • RI.6. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Lifespan development.

    • 6.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands development as a lifelong process.

    • 6.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands research techniques used to gather data on the developmental process.

    • 6.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands stage theories of development.

    • 6.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands issues surrounding the developmental process (nature/nurture, continuity/discontinuity, stability/instability, critical periods).

    • 6.e. Assessment Target:

      Student understands impact of technology on aspects of the lifespan.

  • RI.7. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Learning.

    • 7.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands characteristics of learning.

    • 7.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands principles of classical conditioning.

    • 7.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands principles of operant conditioning.

    • 7.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands components of cognitive learning.

    • 7.e. Assessment Target:

      Student understands roles of biology and culture in determining learning.

  • RI.8. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Memory.

    • 8.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands encoding, or getting information into memory.

    • 8.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands short-term and long-term memory systems.

    • 8.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands retrieval, or getting information out of memory.

    • 8.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands biological bases of memory.

    • 8.e. Assessment Target:

      Student understands methods for improving memory.

  • RI.9. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Thinking and Language.

    • 9.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands basic elements comprising thought.

    • 9.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands strategies and obstacles involved in problem solving and decision making.

    • 9.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands structural features of language.

    • 9.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands theories and developmental stages of language acquisition.

    • 9.e. Assessment Target:

      Student understands links between thinking and language.

  • RI.10. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    States of Consciousness.

    • 10.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands characteristics of sleep and theories that explain why we sleep.

    • 10.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands theories used to explain and interpret dreams.

    • 10.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands basic phenomena and uses of hypnosis.

    • 10.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands categories of psychoactive drugs and their effects.

  • RI.11. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Individual Differences.

    • 11.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands concepts related to measurement of individual differences.

    • 11.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands influence and interaction of heredity and environment on individual differences.

    • 11.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands nature of intelligence.

    • 11.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands nature of intelligence testing.

  • RI.12. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Personality and Assessment.

    • 12.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands what is meant by personality and personality constructs.

    • 12.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands personality approaches and theories.

    • 12.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands assessment tools used in personality.

  • RI.13. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Psychological Disorders.

    • 13.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands characteristics and origins of abnormal behavior.

    • 13.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands methods used in exploring abnormal behavior.

    • 13.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands major categories of abnormal behavior.

    • 13.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands impact of mental disorders.

  • RI.14. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Treatment of Psychological Disorders.

    • 14.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands prominent methods used to treat people with disorders.

    • 14.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands types of practitioners who implement treatment.

    • 14.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands legal and ethical challenges involved in delivery of treatment.

  • RI.15. Domain / Statement Of Enduring Knowledge: Psychology

    Social and Cultural Dimensions of Behavior.

    • 15.a. Assessment Target:

      Student understands social judgment and attitudes.

    • 15.b. Assessment Target:

      Student understands social and cultural categories.

    • 15.c. Assessment Target:

      Student understands group processes.

    • 15.d. Assessment Target:

      Student understands social influence.

 
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