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Kentucky: 8th-Grade Standards

  • KY.PS. Category: Program of Studies 2006

    • SS-8-GC. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Government and Civics - The study of government and civics equips students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of American democracy, including its fundamental principles, structure, and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority, and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies. (Academic Expectations 2.14, 2.15)

      • SS-8-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the American political system developed from a colonial base of representative democracy by the actions of people who envisioned an independent country and new purposes for the government

      • SS-8-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the United States government was formed to establish order, provide security and accomplish common goals.

      • SS-8-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the fundamental values and principles (e.g., liberty, justice, individual human dignity, the rule of law) of American representative democracy as expressed in historical documents (e.g., the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States) are enduring and remain significant today.

      • SS-8-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches. The Constitution is a document that can be changed from time to time through both formal and informal processes (e.g., amendments, court cases, executive actions) to meet the needs of its citizens.

      • SS-8-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that as members of a democratic society, all citizens of the United States have certain rights and responsibilities, including civic participation.

      • SS-8-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding (e.g., illustrate, write, model, projects, present) of the nature of government:

        • SS-8-GC-S- Standard:

          Describe how democratic governments in the United States prior to Reconstruction functioned to preserve and protect the rights (e.g., voting), liberty and property of their citizens by making, enacting and enforcing rules and laws (e.g., constitutions, laws, statutes)

        • SS-8-GC-S- Standard:

          Compare purposes and sources of power in the most common forms of government (e.g., monarchy, democracy, republic)

        • SS-8-GC-S- Standard:

          Explain the role of government (e.g., establishing order, providing security, achieving common goals) in the United States prior to Reconstruction and make connections to how government influences culture, society and the economy

      • SS-8-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate the Constitution of the United States:

        • SS-8-GC-S- Standard:

          Examine ways the Constitution is a document that can be changed from time to time through both formal and informal processes (e.g., amendments, court cases, executive actions) to meet the needs of its citizens

        • SS-8-GC-S- Standard:

          Explain the political process established by the U.S. Constitution and ways the Constitution separates power among the legislative, executive and judicial branches to prevent the concentration of political power and to establish a system of checks and balances

        • SS-8-GC-S- Standard:

          Analyze why the powers of the state and federal governments are sometimes shared and sometimes separated (federalism)

      • SS-8-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will make inferences about and among significant historical events and historical documents (e.g., the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States) to illustrate connections to democratic principles and guaranteed rights for all citizens

      • SS-8-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will explain pros and cons of how citizen responsibilities (e.g., participate in community activities, vote in elections) and duties (e.g., obey the law, pay taxes, serve on a jury, register for the military) impact the U.S. government's ability to function as a democracy

      • SS-8-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze information from a variety of print and non-print sources (e.g., books, documents, articles, interviews, Internet) to research answers to questions and explore issues

    • SS-8-CS. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Cultures and Societies - Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, communication) connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World, and that issues and challenges unite and divide them. (Academic Expectations 2.16, 2.17)

      • SS-8-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that culture is a system of beliefs, knowledge, institutions, customs/traditions, languages and skills shared by a group of people. Through a society's culture, individuals learn the relationships, structures, patterns and processes to be members of the society.

      • SS-8-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that cultures develop social institutions (e.g., government, economy, education, religion, family) to structure society, influence behavior, and respond to human needs.

      • SS-8-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that interactions among individuals and groups assume various forms (e.g., compromise, cooperation, conflict, competition) and are influenced by culture.

      • SS-8-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that multiple factors contributed to the cultural diversity of the United States prior to Reconstruction; an understanding and appreciation of the diverse complexity of cultures is essential in our society.

      • SS-8-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding (e.g., speak, draw, write, sing, create) of the nature of culture by exploring cultural elements (e.g., beliefs, customs/traditions, languages, skills, literature, the arts) of diverse groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction and explain how culture served to define specific groups and resulted in unique perspectives

      • SS-8-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate social institutions (e.g., family, religion, education, government, economy) in relation to how they responded to human needs, structured society and influenced behavior in the United States prior to Reconstruction

      • SS-8-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will explain how communications between groups were influenced by cultural differences; explain how interactions influenced conflict and competition (e.g., political, economic, religious, ethnic) among individuals and groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction

      • SS-8-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will describe conflicts between individuals or groups and explain how compromise and cooperation were possible choices to resolve conflict among individuals and groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction

      • SS-8-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will compare examples of cultural elements of today to those in the United States prior to Reconstruction, using information from a variety of print and non-print sources (e.g., media, literature, interviews, observations, documentaries, artifacts)

    • SS-8-E. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Economics - Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others, the nation and the world. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies, and governments. (Academic Expectations 2.18)

      • SS-8-E-U-1 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the basic economic problem confronting individuals, societies and government in the development of the United States prior to Reconstruction was scarcity; as a result of scarcity, economic choices and decisions were made.

      • SS-8-E-U-2 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the development of the American economic system, institutions and markets prior to Reconstruction helped individuals, groups and governments achieve their goals and impacted life in the United States.

      • SS-8-E-U-3 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the United States government and its policies played a major role in determining how the U.S. economy functioned prior to Reconstruction.

      • SS-8-E-U-4 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that individuals, businesses and the government of the U.S. prior to Reconstruction made economic decisions about the use of resources in the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

      • SS-8-E-S-1 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Sills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of limited resources and scarcity in the United States prior to Reconstruction, using information from a variety of print and non-print sources (e.g., news media, news magazines, textbook, Internet):

        • SS-8-E-S-1 Standard:

          Explain how scarcity required individuals, groups and governments to make decisions about use of productive resources (e.g., natural resources, human resources and capital goods)

        • SS-8-E-S-1 Standard:

          Describe how goods and services were exchanged and how supply and demand and competition determined prices

        • SS-8-E-S-1 Standard:

          Analyze cause-effect relationships among financial decisions by individuals and groups and historical events

      • SS-8-E-S-2 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Sills and Concepts - Students will investigate the production and distribution of goods and services in the United States prior to Reconstruction:

        • SS-8-E-S-2 Standard:

          Examine ways in which basic economic questions about the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services were addressed

        • SS-8-E-S-2 Standard:

          Explain how resources were used to produce goods and services and how profit motivated individuals and groups to take risks in producing goods and services

        • SS-8-E-S-2 Standard:

          Analyze how new knowledge, technology/tools and specialization influenced productivity of goods and services

      • SS-8-E-S-3 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Sills and Concepts - Students will analyze interdependence of economic activities among individuals and groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction

    • SS-8-G. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Geography - Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future. (Academic Expectations 2.19)

      • SS-8-G-U-1 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that use of geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, photographs, models, charts, graphs, databases) and mental maps helps to interpret information, analyze patterns and spatial data, and understand geographic issues encountered in the United States prior to Reconstruction.

      • SS-8-G-U-2 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that patterns emerge as humans move, settle, and interact on Earth's surface and can be identified by examining the location of physical and human characteristics, how they are arranged, and why they are in particular locations. Economic, political, cultural and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations, interdependence, cooperation and conflict in the United States prior to Reconstruction.

      • SS-8-G-U-3 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that regions help us to see Earth as an integrated system of places and features organized by such principles as landform types, political units, economic patterns and cultural groups.

      • SS-8-G-U-4 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that people depended on, adapted to, or modified the environment to meet basic needs. Human actions modified the physical environment and in turn, the physical environment limited or promoted human activities in the United States prior to Reconstruction.

      • SS-8-G-S-1 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Sills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding of patterns on Earth's surface using a variety of geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, charts, graphs, photographs, models):

        • SS-8-G-S-1 Standard:

          Locate, in absolute or relative terms, landforms and bodies of water

        • SS-8-G-S-1 Standard:

          Locate, interpret patterns on Earth's surface, and explain how different physical factors (e.g., rivers, mountains, seacoasts) impacted where human activities were located in the United States prior to Reconstruction

      • SS-8-G-S-2 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Sills and Concepts - Students will investigate regions of the Earth's surface in the United States prior to Reconstruction using information from print and non-print sources (e.g., books, films, magazines, Internet, geographic tools):

        • SS-8-G-S-2 Standard:

          Explain relationships between and among physical characteristics of regions and how they were made distinctive by human characteristics (e.g., dams, roads, urban centers); describe advantages and disadvantages for human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement) that resulted

        • SS-8-G-S-2 Standard:

          Describe patterns of human settlement; explain relationships between these patterns and human needs; analyze how factors (e.g., war, famine, disease, economic opportunity, and technology) affected human migration

        • SS-8-G-S-2 Standard:

          Evaluate how availability of technology, resources, and knowledge caused places and regions to evolve and change

        • SS-8-G-S-2 Standard:

          Analyze current events to compare geographic perspectives of today with those prior to Reconstruction

      • SS-8-G-S-3 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Sills and Concepts - Students will investigate interactions among human activities and the physical environment in the United States prior to Reconstruction:

        • SS-8-G-S-3 Standard:

          Analyze cause-effect relationships between and among natural resources and political, social, and economic development

        • SS-8-G-S-3 Standard:

          Explain how people used technology to modify the physical environment to meet their needs

        • SS-8-G-S-3 Standard:

          Describe how the physical environment and different viewpoints promoted or restricted human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement, development) and land use

    • SS-8-HP. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Historical Perspective - History is an account of events, people, ideas, and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States and the World. (Academic Expectations 2.20)

      • SS-8-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that history is an account of human activities that is interpretive in nature, and a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources, data, artifacts) are needed to analyze and understand historical events.

      • SS-8-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that U.S. History can be analyzed by examining significant eras (Exploration as it relates to the settlement of America, The Great Convergence, Colonization and Settlement, Revolution and the New Nation, Expansion and Reform, Civil War) to develop chronological understanding and recognize cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation.

      • SS-8-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that U.S. History (prior to Reconstruction) has been impacted by significant individuals and groups.

      • SS-8-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that geography, culture and economics have a significant impact on historical perspectives and events.

      • SS-8-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that advances in science and technology have a significant impact on historical events.

      • SS-8-HP-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Sills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding of the interpretative nature of history using a variety of tools and resources (e.g., primary and secondary sources, Internet, timelines, maps):

        • SS-8-HP-S- Standard:

          Investigate, describe and analyze significant historical events and conditions in the U.S prior to Reconstruction, drawing inferences about perspectives of different individuals and groups (e.g., gender, race, region, ethnic group, age, economic status, religion, political group)

        • SS-8-HP-S- Standard:

          Examine multiple cause-effect relationships that have shaped history (e.g., showing how a series of events are connected)

      • SS-8-HP-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Sills and Concepts - Students will investigate, using primary and secondary sources (e.g., biographies, films, magazines, Internet resources, textbooks, artifacts) to answer questions about, locate examples of, or interpret factual and fictional accounts of major historical events and people:

        • SS-8-HP-S- Standard:

          Analyze how exploration and the settlement of America caused diverse cultures to interact in various forms (e.g., compromise, cooperation, conflict, competition); explain how governments expanded their territories and the impact this had on the United States prior to Reconstruction

        • SS-8-HP-S- Standard:

          Describe events and conditions that led to the 'Great Convergence' of European, African and Native American people beginning in the late 15th century; analyze how America's diverse society developed as a result of these events

        • SS-8-HP-S- Standard:

          Explain how the ideals of equality and personal liberty (e.g., rise of individual rights, economic freedom, religious diversity) that developed during the colonial period were motivations for the American Revolution and proved instrumental in forging a new nation

        • SS-8-HP-S- Standard:

          Describe how the growth of democracy and geographic expansion occurred and were significant to the development of the United States prior to Reconstruction

        • SS-8-HP-S- Standard:

          Compare the political, social, economic and cultural differences (e.g., slavery, tariffs, industrialism vs. agrarianism, federal vs. states' rights) between and among regions of the U.S. and explain how these differences contributed to the American Civil War

        • SS-8-HP-S- Standard:

          Evaluate how advances in science and technology contributed to the changing American society in the United States prior to Reconstruction

  • KY.AE. Category: Academic Expectation

    • AE.1. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain:

      Students are able to use basic communication and mathematics skills for purposes and situations they will encounter throughout their lives.

      • 1.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students use reference tools such as dictionaries, almanacs, encyclopedias, and computer reference programs and research tools such as interviews and surveys to find the information they need to meet specific demands, explore interests, or solve specific problems.

      • 1.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of the variety of materials they read.

      • 1.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of the various things they observe.

      • 1.4. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of the various messages to which they listen.

      • 1.5-1.9. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students use mathematical ideas and procedures to communicate, reason, and solve problems.

      • 1.10. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students organize information through development and use of classification rules and systems.

      • 1.11. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students write using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

      • 1.12. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students speak using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

      • 1.13. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with the visual arts.

      • 1.14. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with music.

      • 1.15. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of and communicate ideas with movement.

      • 1.16. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students use computers and other kinds of technology to collect, organize, and communicate information and ideas.

    • AE.2. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain:

      Students shall develop their abilities to apply core concepts and principles from mathematics, the sciences, the arts, the humanities, social studies, practical living studies, and vocational studies to what they will encounter throughout their lives.

      • 2.14. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students understand the democratic principles of justice, equality, responsibility, and freedom and apply them to real-life situations.

      • 2.15. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students can accurately describe various forms of government and analyze issues that relate to the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democracy.

      • 2.16. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students observe, analyze, and interpret human behaviors, social groupings, and institutions to better understand people and the relationships among individuals and among groups.

      • 2.17. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students interact effectively and work cooperatively with the many ethnic and cultural groups of our nation and world.

      • 2.18. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students understand economic principles and are able to make economic decisions that have consequences in daily living.

      • 2.19. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students recognize and understand the relationship between people and geography and apply their knowledge in real-life situations.

      • 2.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students understand, analyze, and interpret historical events, conditions, trends, and issues to develop historical perspective.

  • KY.CC. Category: Core Content for Assessment v.4.1.

    • SS-08-1. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Government and Civics

      The study of government and civics equips students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of representative democracy in the United States, including its fundamental principles, structure and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority, and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies.

      • SS-08-1.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Formation of Governments

        • SS-08-1.1. Standard:

          Students will compare purposes and sources of power in the most common forms of government (monarchy, democracy, republic). DOK 2

        • SS-08-1.1. Standard:

          Students will describe and give examples to support how democratic government in the United States prior to Reconstruction functioned to preserve and protect the rights (e.g., voting), liberty and property of their citizens by making, enacting and enforcing appropriate rules and laws (e.g., constitutions, laws, statutes). DOK 3

        • SS-08-1.1. Standard:

          Students will describe and give examples of the ways the Constitution of the United States is a document that can be changed from time to time through both formal and informal processes (e.g., amendments, court cases, executive actions) to meet the needs of its citizens. DOK 2

      • SS-08-1.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Constitutional Principles

        • SS-08-1.2. Standard:

          Students will identify the three branches of government, describe their functions and analyze and give examples of the ways the U.S. Constitution separates power among the legislative, executive and judicial branches to prevent the concentration of political power and to establish a system of checks and balances. DOK 3

        • SS-08-1.2. Standard:

          Students will explain the reasons why the powers of the state and national/federal governments are sometimes shared and sometimes separate (federalism) and give examples of shared and separate powers. DOK 2

      • SS-08-1.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Rights and Responsibilities

        • SS-08-1.3. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how significant United States documents (Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights) established democratic principles and guaranteed certain rights for all citizens. DOK 2

        • SS-08-1.3. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how, in order for the U.S. government to function as a democracy, citizens must assume responsibilities (e.g., participating in community activities, voting in elections) and duties (e.g., obeying the law, paying taxes, serving on a jury, registering for the military). DOK 2

    • SS-08-2. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Cultures and Societies

      Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, communication) connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World, and that issues and challenges unite and divide them.

      • SS-08-2.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Elements of Culture

        • SS-08-2.1. Standard:

          Students will explain how elements of culture (e.g., language, the arts, customs, beliefs, literature) defined specific groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction and resulted in unique perspectives. DOK 2

      • SS-08-2.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Social Institutions

        • SS-08-2.2. Standard:

          Students will compare how cultures (United States prior to Reconstruction) developed social institutions (family, religion, education, government, economy) to respond to human needs, structure society and influence behavior.

      • SS-08-2.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Interactions Among Individuals and Groups

        • SS-08-2.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how conflict and competition (e.g., political, economic, religious, ethnic) occurred among individuals and groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction. DOK 2

        • SS-08-2.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how compromise and cooperation were possible choices to resolve conflict among individuals and groups in the United States prior to Reconstruction. DOK 2

    • SS-08-3. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Economics

      Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others, the nation and the world. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies and governments.

      • SS-08-3.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Scarcity

        • SS-08-3.1. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how scarcity required individuals, groups and the government in the United States prior to Reconstruction to make decisions about how productive resources (natural resources, human resources, capital goods) were used. DOK 2

        • SS-08-3.1. Standard:

          Students will identify how financial decisions (considering finance and opportunity cost) by individuals and groups impacted historical events in U.S. History prior to Reconstruction.

      • SS-08-3.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Economic Systems and Institutions

        • SS-08-3.2. Standard:

          Students will describe the economic system that developed in the United States prior to Reconstruction. DOK 2

        • SS-08-3.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how profit motivated individuals and groups to take risks in producing goods and services in the early United States prior to Reconstruction and influenced the growth of a free enterprise system.

      • SS-08-3.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Markets

        • SS-08-3.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how in the United States prior to Reconstruction, the prices of goods and services were determined by supply and demand. DOK 2

        • SS-08-3.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how money (unit of account) was used to express the market value of goods and services and how money made it easier to trade, borrow, invest and save in the United States prior to Reconstruction.

        • SS-08-3.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how competition among buyers and sellers impacted the price of goods and services in the United States prior to Reconstruction.

      • SS-08-3.4. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Production, Distribution, and Consumption

        • SS-08-3.4. Standard:

          Students will explain ways in which the basic economic questions about the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services were addressed in the United States prior to Reconstruction. DOK 2

        • SS-08-3.4. Standard:

          Students will describe how new knowledge, technology/tools and specialization increased productivity in the United States prior to Reconstruction. DOK 2

        • SS-08-3.4. Standard:

          Students will explain how personal, national and international economic activities were interdependent in the United States prior to Reconstruction. DOK 2

    • SS-08-4. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Geography

      Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future.

      • SS-08-4.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The Use of Geographic Tools

        • SS-08-4.1. Standard:

          Students will use a variety of geographic tools (maps, photographs, charts, graphs, databases) to interpret patterns and locations on Earth's surface in United States history prior to Reconstruction. DOK 3

        • SS-08-4.1. Standard:

          Students will describe how different factors (e.g., rivers, mountains, plains, harbors) affected where human activities were located in the United States prior to Reconstruction.

      • SS-08-4.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Regions

        • SS-08-4.2. Standard:

          Students will describe how regions in the U.S. prior to Reconstruction were made distinctive by human characteristics (e.g., dams, roads, urban centers) and physical characteristics (e.g., mountains, bodies of water) that created advantages and disadvantages for human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement). DOK 2

        • SS-08-4.2. Standard:

          Students will describe how places and regions in United States history prior to Reconstruction changed over time as technologies, resources and knowledge became available. DOK 2

      • SS-08-4.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Patterns

        • SS-08-4.3. Standard:

          Students will describe patterns of human settlement in the United States prior to Reconstruction and explain how these patterns were influenced by human needs. DOK 2

        • SS-08-4.3. Standard:

          Students will explain why and give examples of how human populations changed and/or migrated because of factors such as war, disease, economic opportunity and technology in the United States prior to Reconstruction. DOK 3

      • SS-08-4.4. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Human-Environment Interaction

        • SS-08-4.4. Standard:

          Students will explain how technology in the United States prior to Reconstruction assisted human modification (e.g., irrigation, clearing land, building roads) of the physical environment.

        • SS-08-4.4. Standard:

          Students will describe ways in which the physical environment (e.g., natural resources, physical geography, natural disasters) both promoted and limited human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement, development) in the United States prior to Reconstruction.

        • SS-08-4.4. Standard:

          Students will explain how the natural resources of a place or region impact its political, social and economic development in the United States prior to Reconstruction.

        • SS-08-4.4. Standard:

          Students will compare and contrast different perspectives (viewpoints) that people have about how to use land (e.g., farming, industrial, residential, recreational) in the United States prior to Reconstruction.

    • SS-08-5. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Historical Perspective

      History is an account of events, people, ideas and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States and the World.

      • SS-08-5.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The Factual and Interpretive Nature of History

        • SS-08-5.1. Standard:

          Students will use a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources) to describe and explain historical events and conditions and to analyze the perspectives of different individuals and groups (e.g., gender, race, region, ethnic group, age, economic status, religion, political group) in U.S. history prior to Reconstruction. DOK 3

        • SS-08-5.1. Standard:

          Students will explain how history is a series of connected events shaped by multiple cause-and-effect relationships and give examples of those relationships. DOK 3

      • SS-08-5.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The History of the United States

        • SS-08-5.2. Standard:

          Students will explain events and conditions that led to the 'Great Convergence' of European, African and Native American people beginning in the late 15th century, and analyze how America's diverse society developed as a result of these events. DOK 3

        • SS-08-5.2. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how the ideals of equality and personal liberty (rise of individual rights, economic freedom, religious diversity) that developed during the colonial period, were motivations for the American Revolution and proved instrumental in the development of a new nation. DOK 3

        • SS-08-5.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how the growth of democracy and geographic expansion occurred and were significant to the development of the United States prior to Reconstruction. DOK 3

        • SS-08-5.2. Standard:

          Students will describe the political, social, economic and cultural differences (e.g., slavery, tariffs, industrialism vs. agrarianism, federal vs. states' rights) among sections of the U.S. and explain how these differences resulted in the American Civil War. DOK 3

 
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