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Kentucky: 4th-Grade Standards

  • KY.PS. Category: Program of Studies 2006

    • SS-4-GC. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Government and Civics - The study of government and civics allows students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of American democracy, including its fundamental principles, structure, and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies. (Academic Expectations 2.14, 2.15)

      • SS-4-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the government of Kentucky was formed to establish order, provide security and accomplish common goals.

      • SS-4-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the Constitution of Kentucky establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches.

      • SS-4-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that all citizens of Kentucky have rights and responsibilities as members of a democratic society, including civic participation.

      • SS-4-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that fundamental values and principles of American democracy are expressed in Kentucky's Constitution.

      • SS-4-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of government:

        • SS-4-GC-S- Standard:

          Explore basic functions of state government (e.g., to establish order, to provide security and to accomplish common goals)

        • SS-4-GC-S- Standard:

          Explain and give examples of services state governments provide (e.g., state police and fire protection, state parks, highway maintenance, snow removal)

        • SS-4-GC-S- Standard:

          Describe how the state government provides services to its citizens (e.g., collecting taxes)

        • SS-4-GC-S- Standard:

          Describe the structure of state government (e.g., the executive, legislative and judicial branches) and explain why power is shared among different branches

        • SS-4-GC-S- Standard:

          Investigate and give examples of state laws and explain their purpose

      • SS-4-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will explore rights and responsibilities:

        • SS-4-GC-S- Standard:

          Describe, give examples, and compare rights and responsibilities

        • SS-4-GC-S- Standard:

          Describe the benefits of citizenship and find examples of citizenship in current events/news media

      • SS-4-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will use information from print and non-print sources (e.g., documents, informational passages/texts, interviews, digital and environmental) to explain basic democratic principles (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) found in Kentucky's Constitution

    • SS-4-CS. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Cultures and Societies - Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World and that issues and challenges unite and divide them. (Academic Expectations 2.16, 2.17)

      • SS-4-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that culture is a system of beliefs, knowledge, institutions, customs/traditions, languages and skills shared by a group of people. Through a society's culture, individuals learn the relationships, structures, patterns and processes to be members of the society.

      • SS-4-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that cultures develop social institutions (e.g., government, economy, education, religion, family) to structure society, influence behavior and respond to human needs.

      • SS-4-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that interactions among individuals and groups assume various forms (e.g., compromise, cooperation, conflict, competition) and are influenced by culture.

      • SS-4-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that a variety of factors promote cultural diversity in the state of Kentucky.

      • SS-4-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that an appreciation of the diverse complexity of cultures is essential to interact effectively and work cooperatively with the many diverse ethnic and cultural groups of today.

      • SS-4-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will develop an understanding of the nature of culture:

        • SS-4-CS-S- Standard:

          Explore and compare cultural elements (e.g., beliefs, traditions, languages, skills, literature, the arts) of diverse groups (e.g., Native Americans and early settlers) in the early settlement of Kentucky

        • SS-4-CS-S- Standard:

          Examine the influences/contributions of diverse groups in Kentucky

      • SS-4-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate social institutions (e.g., family, government, economy, education, religion) in Kentucky and explain their functions

      • SS-4-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will describe conflicts that occurred between diverse groups (e.g., Native Americans and the early settlers) in the settlement of Kentucky

      • SS-4-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate and compare culture/cultural events of diverse groups in Kentucky today with the past using information from print and non-print sources (e.g., documents, informational passages/texts, interviews, digital and environmental)

    • SS-4-E. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Economics - Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others and the nation as a whole. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies, and governments. (Academic Expectations 2.18)

      • SS-4-E-U-1 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the basic economic problem confronting individuals and groups in Kentucky today is scarcity; as a result of scarcity, economic choices and decisions must be made.

      • SS-4-E-U-2 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that a variety of fundamental economic concepts impact individuals and groups.

      • SS-4-E-U-3 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that economic institutions are created to help individuals, groups and businesses accomplish common goals.

      • SS-4-E-U-4 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that markets enable buyers and sellers to exchange goods and services.

      • SS-4-E-U-5 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that production and distribution of goods and services have changed over time in Kentucky.

      • SS-4-E-U-6 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that individuals, groups and businesses demonstrate interdependence as they make economic decisions about the use of resources (e.g., natural, human, capital) in the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

      • SS-4-E-S-1 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will develop an understanding of the nature of limited resources and scarcity:

        • SS-4-E-S-1 Standard:

          Use a variety of sources to research and give examples of productive resources (e.g., natural, human, capital) found in regions of Kentucky

        • SS-4-E-S-1 Standard:

          Explain why individuals, groups, and businesses must make economic decisions due to the scarcity of resources

        • SS-4-E-S-1 Standard:

          Investigate banks in Kentucky; explain and give examples of the roles banks play (e.g., loan money, save money) in helping people deal with scarcity

        • SS-4-E-S-1 Standard:

          Investigate and give examples of markets (past and present); and explain how goods and services were/are exchanged

      • SS-4-E-S-2 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will use a variety of sources to investigate and trace change over time (e.g., draw, chart, map, timeline) in the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services (e.g., products made in Kentucky)

      • SS-4-E-S-3 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate and give examples of specialization and explain how it promotes trade between places and regions of the United States (e.g., Kentucky imports and exports, Midwest exports corn, South exports citrus)

    • SS-4-G. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Geography - Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future. (Academic Expectations 2.19)

      • SS-4-G-U-1 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the use of geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, charts, graphs) and mental maps help interpret information, understand and analyze patterns, spatial data and geographic issues.

      • SS-4-G-U-2 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that patterns emerge as humans move, settle and interact on Earth's surface and can be identified by examining the location of physical and human characteristics, how they are arranged and why they are in particular locations. Economic, political, cultural and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations, interdependence, cooperation and conflict.

      • SS-4-G-U-3 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that regions help us to see Earth as an integrated system of places and features organized by such principles as landform types, political units, economic patterns and cultural groups.

      • SS-4-G-U-4 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that people depend on, adapt to, or modify the environment to meet basic needs. Human actions modified the physical environment and in turn, the physical environment limited and/or promoted human activities in the settlement of Kentucky.

      • SS-4-G-S-1 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding of patterns on the Earth's surface, using a variety of geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, charts, graphs):

        • SS-4-G-S-1 Standard:

          Locate and describe major landforms, bodies of water and natural resources located in regions of Kentucky and the United States

        • SS-4-G-S-1 Standard:

          Locate, in absolute and relative terms, major landforms and bodies of water in regions of Kentucky and the United States

        • SS-4-G-S-1 Standard:

          Analyze and compare patterns of movement and settlement in Kentucky

        • SS-4-G-S-1 Standard:

          Explain and give examples of how physical factors (e.g., rivers, mountains) impacted human activities during the early settlement of Kentucky

      • SS-4-G-S-2 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will use information from print and non-print sources (e.g., documents, informational passages/texts, interviews, digital and environmental) to investigate regions of Kentucky:

        • SS-4-G-S-2 Standard:

          Compare regions in Kentucky by their human characteristics (e.g., settlement patterns, languages, and religious beliefs) and physical characteristics (e.g., climate, landforms, bodies of water)

        • SS-4-G-S-2 Standard:

          Describe patterns of human settlement in regions of Kentucky and explain relationships between these patterns and the physical characteristics (e.g., climate, landforms, bodies of water) of the region

        • SS-4-G-S-2 Standard:

          Explain the influence of the physical characteristics of regions (e.g., climates, landforms, bodies of water) on decisions that were made about where to locate things (e.g., factories stores, bridges)

        • SS-4-G-S-2 Standard:

          Analyze how advances in technology (e.g., dams, roads, irrigation) have allowed people to settle in places previously inaccessible (Kentucky)

      • SS-4-G-S-3 Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate interactions among human activities and the physical environment in regions of Kentucky:

        • SS-4-G-S-3 Standard:

          Explain how people modified the physical environment (e.g., dams, roads, bridges) to meet their needs

        • SS-4-G-S-3 Standard:

          Describe how the physical environment (e.g., mountains as barriers or protection, rivers as barriers or transportation) promoted and/or restricted human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement, development) and land use in Kentucky

    • SS-4-HP. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Historical Perspective - History is an account of events, people, ideas, and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments, and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States, and the World. (Academic Expectations 2.20)

      • SS-4-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that history is an account of human activities that is interpretive in nature and a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources) are needed to analyze and understand historical events.

      • SS-4-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the history of Kentucky can be analyzed by examining the connected events shaped by multiple cause-effect relationships, tying past to present.

      • SS-4-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the history of Kentucky has been impacted by significant individuals, groups and advances in technology.

      • SS-4-HP-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of history using a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources):

        • SS-4-HP-S- Standard:

          Investigate and chronologically describe (e.g., timelines, charts) significant events in Kentucky history, from early development as a territory to development as a state

        • SS-4-HP-S- Standard:

          Interpret and describe events in Kentucky's history in terms of their importance

        • SS-4-HP-S- Standard:

          Examine cause and effect relationships that influenced Kentucky's history

        • SS-4-HP-S- Standard:

          Explain reasons that different groups of people explored and settled in Kentucky

        • SS-4-HP-S- Standard:

          Investigate the influences/contributions of diverse groups to the culture of Kentucky today

      • SS-4-HP-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will use information from print and non-print sources (e.g., documents, informational passages/texts, interviews, digital and environmental):

        • SS-4-HP-S- Standard:

          Examine and compare factual and fictional accounts of historical events in Kentucky's history

        • SS-4-HP-S- Standard:

          Describe the significance of historical documents, symbols, and songs related to Kentucky's history (e.g., Kentucky's Constitution, state flag, state song)

        • SS-4-HP-S- Standard:

          Investigate change over time (e.g., transportation, communication, education, technology, lifestyles and conditions) in Kentucky's history

  • KY.AE. Category: Academic Expectation

    • AE.1. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain:

      Students are able to use basic communication and mathematics skills for purposes and situations they will encounter throughout their lives.

      • 1.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students use reference tools such as dictionaries, almanacs, encyclopedias, and computer reference programs and research tools such as interviews and surveys to find the information they need to meet specific demands, explore interests, or solve specific problems.

      • 1.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of the variety of materials they read.

      • 1.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of the various things they observe.

      • 1.4. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of the various messages to which they listen.

      • 1.5-1.9. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students use mathematical ideas and procedures to communicate, reason, and solve problems.

      • 1.10. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students organize information through development and use of classification rules and systems.

      • 1.11. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students write using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

      • 1.12. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students speak using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

      • 1.13. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with the visual arts.

      • 1.14. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with music.

      • 1.15. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of and communicate ideas with movement.

      • 1.16. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students use computers and other kinds of technology to collect, organize, and communicate information and ideas.

    • AE.2. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain:

      Students shall develop their abilities to apply core concepts and principles from mathematics, the sciences, the arts, the humanities, social studies, practical living studies, and vocational studies to what they will encounter throughout their lives.

      • 2.14. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students understand the democratic principles of justice, equality, responsibility, and freedom and apply them to real-life situations.

      • 2.15. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students can accurately describe various forms of government and analyze issues that relate to the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democracy.

      • 2.16. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students observe, analyze, and interpret human behaviors, social groupings, and institutions to better understand people and the relationships among individuals and among groups.

      • 2.17. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students interact effectively and work cooperatively with the many ethnic and cultural groups of our nation and world.

      • 2.18. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students understand economic principles and are able to make economic decisions that have consequences in daily living.

      • 2.19. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students recognize and understand the relationship between people and geography and apply their knowledge in real-life situations.

      • 2.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students understand, analyze, and interpret historical events, conditions, trends, and issues to develop historical perspective.

  • KY.CC. Category: Core Content for Assessment v.4.1.

    • SS-04-1. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Government and Civics

      The study of government and civics equips students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of representative democracy in the United States, including its fundamental principles, structure and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies.

      • SS-04-1.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Formation of Governments

        • SS-04-1.1. Standard:

          Students will describe the basic purposes of Kentucky government (to establish order, provide security and accomplish common goals); give examples of the services that state governments provide (e.g., state police, state highways, state parks, public schools) and identify how the government of Kentucky pays for these services (e.g., sales taxes, state income taxes). DOK 2

        • SS-04-1.1. Standard:

          Students will explain how state governments function (by making, enacting and enforcing laws) to protect the rights and property of citizens. DOK 2

      • SS-04-1.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Constitutional Principles

        • SS-04-1.2. Standard:

          Students will identify the three branches of Kentucky government, explain the basic duties of each branch (executive-enforce the laws, legislative-make the laws, judicial-interpret the laws) and identify important state offices/ leaders, (Governor, Lieutenant Governor, General Assembly, Senate, House, representatives, senators, Kentucky Supreme Court, judges) associated with each branch. DOK 2

        • SS-04-1.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how power is shared among the different branches (executive, legislative, judicial) of state government.

      • SS-04-1.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Rights and Responsibilities

        • SS-04-1.3. Standard:

          Students will identify the basic principles of democracy (e.g., justice, equality, responsibility, freedom) found in Kentucky's Constitution and explain why they are important to citizens today. DOK 2

        • SS-04-1.3. Standard:

          Students will describe specific rights and responsibilities individuals have as citizens of Kentucky (e.g., voting in statewide elections, participating in state service projects, obeying state laws) and explain why civic engagement is necessary to preserve a democratic society. DOK 2

    • SS-04-2. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Cultures and Societies

      Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, communication) connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World, and that issues and challenges unite and divide them.

      • SS-04-2.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Elements of Culture

        • SS-04-2.1. Standard:

          Students will identify early cultures (Native American, Appalachian, pioneers) in Kentucky and explain their similarities and differences. DOK 2

      • SS-04-2.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Social Institutions

        • SS-04-2.2. Standard:

          Students will describe social institutions (government, economy, education, religion, family) in Kentucky and how they respond to the needs of the people.

      • SS-04-2.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Interactions Among Individuals and Groups

        • SS-04-2.3. Standard:

          Students will describe various forms of interactions (compromise, cooperation, conflict) that occurred during the early settlement of Kentucky between diverse groups (Native Americans, early settlers). DOK 2

        • SS-04-2.3. Standard:

          Students will give examples of conflicts between individuals or groups today and describe appropriate conflict resolution strategies (e.g., compromise, cooperation, communication) to use.

    • SS-04-3. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Economics

      Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others, the nation and the world. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies and governments.

      • SS-04-3.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Scarcity

        • SS-04-3.1. Standard:

          Students will describe scarcity and explain how scarcity requires people in Kentucky to make economic choices (e.g., use of productive resources - natural, human, capital) and incur opportunity costs. DOK 2

      • SS-04-3.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Economic Systems and Institutions

        • SS-04-3.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how profit motivates individuals/businesses to take risks in producing goods and services.

      • SS-04-3.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Markets

        • SS-04-3.3. Standard:

          Students will give examples of markets; explain how they function and how the prices of goods and services are determined by supply and demand. DOK 2

        • SS-04-3.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how competition among buyers and sellers influences the price of goods and services in our state, nation and world.

      • SS-04-3.4. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Production, Distribution, and Consumption

        • SS-04-3.4. Standard:

          Students will describe production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in regions of Kentucky and the U.S. DOK 2

        • SS-04-3.4. Standard:

          Students will describe how new knowledge, technology/tools and specialization increases productivity and promotes trade between regions of Kentucky and the United States (e.g., Midwest - corn, South - citrus).

        • SS-04-3.4. Standard:

          Students will define interdependence and give examples of how people in our communities, states, nation and world depend on each other for goods and services.

    • SS-04-4. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Geography

      Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future.

      • SS-04-4.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The Use of Geographic Tools

        • SS-04-4.1. Standard:

          Students will use geographic tools (e.g., maps, charts, graphs) to identify and describe natural resources and other physical characteristics (e.g., major landforms, major bodies of water, weather, climate, roads, bridges) in regions of Kentucky and the United States. DOK 2

        • SS-04-4.1. Standard:

          Students will use geographic tools to locate major landforms, bodies of water, places and objects in Kentucky by their absolute and relative locations.

        • SS-04-4.1. Standard:

          Students will describe how different factors (e.g. rivers, mountains) influence where human activities were/are located in Kentucky.

      • SS-04-4.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Regions

        • SS-04-4.2. Standard:

          Students will compare regions in Kentucky and the United States by their human characteristics (e.g., language, settlement patterns, beliefs) and physical characteristics (e.g., climate, landforms, bodies of water). DOK 2

      • SS-04-4.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Patterns

        • SS-04-4.3. Standard:

          Students will describe patterns of human settlement in regions of Kentucky and explain how these patterns were/are influenced by physical characteristics (e.g., climate, landforms, bodies of water). DOK 2

        • SS-04-4.3. Standard:

          Students will describe how advances in technology (e.g., dams, reservoirs, roads, irrigation) allow people to settle in places previously inaccessible in Kentucky. DOK 2

      • SS-04-4.4. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Human-Environment Interaction

        • SS-04-4.4. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how people adapted to/modified the physical environment (e.g., natural resources, physical geography, natural disasters) to meet their needs during the history of Kentucky and explain its impact on the environment today. DOK 3

        • SS-04-4.4. Standard:

          Students will describe how the physical environment (e.g., mountains as barriers for protection, rivers as barriers of transportation) both promoted and restricted human activities during the early settlement of Kentucky. DOK 2

    • SS-04-5. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Historical Perspective

      History is an account of events, people, ideas and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States and the World.

      • SS-04-5.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The Factual and Interpretive Nature of History

        • SS-04-5.1. Standard:

          Students will use a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., artifacts, diaries, timelines) to describe significant events in the history of Kentucky and interpret different perspectives. DOK 2

      • SS-04-5.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The History of the United States

        • SS-04-5.2. Standard:

          Students will identify significant historical documents, symbols, songs and selected readings (e.g., state flag, United We Stand, Divided We Fall, My Old Kentucky Home,) specific to Kentucky and explain their historical significance. DOK 2

        • SS-04-5.2. Standard:

          Students will identify and compare the cultures of diverse groups and explain why people explored and settled in Kentucky. DOK 2

        • SS-04-5.2. Standard:

          Students will compare change over time in communication, technology, transportation and education in Kentucky. DOK 3

 
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