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Kentucky: 12th-Grade Standards

  • KY.PS. Category: Program of Studies 2006

    • SS-H-GC. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Government and Civics - The study of government and civics equips students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of American representative democracy, including its fundamental principles, structure, and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority, and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies. (Academic Expectations 2.14, 2.15)

      • SS-H-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that people form governments to establish order, provide security and accomplish common goals. Governments in the world vary in terms of their sources of power, purposes and effectiveness.

      • SS-H-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the Government of the United States, established by the Constitution, embodies the purposes, values and principles (e.g., liberty, justice, individual human dignity, the rules of law) of American representative democracy.

      • SS-H-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches. The provisions of the U.S. Constitution have allowed our government to change over time to meet the changing needs of our society.

      • SS-H-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that all citizens of the United States have certain rights and responsibilities as members of a democratic society.

      • SS-H-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that individual rights in a democracy may, at times, be in conflict with others' individual rights, as well as with the responsibility of government to protect the 'common good.'

      • SS-H-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the United States does not exist in isolation; its democratic form of government has played and continues to play a considerable role in our interconnected world.

      • SS-H-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the level of individual civic engagement in a democracy can impact the government's effectiveness.

      • SS-H-GC-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the development and ongoing functions of a political system (e.g., elections, political parties, campaigns, political identity and culture, the role of the media) is necessary for a democratic form of government to be effective.

      • SS-H-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding (e.g., illustrate, write, model, present, debate) of the nature of government:

        • SS-H-GC-S- Standard:

          Compare purposes and sources of power of various forms of government in the world, and analyze their effectiveness in establishing order, providing security and accomplishing goals

        • SS-H-GC-S- Standard:

          Examine conflicts within and among different governments and analyze their impacts on historical or current events

        • SS-H-GC-S- Standard:

          Examine ways that democratic governments do or do not preserve and protect the rights and liberties of their constituents (e.g., U.N. Charter, Declaration of the Rights of Man, U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, U.S. Constitution)

        • SS-H-GC-S- Standard:

          Evaluate the relationship between and among the U.S. government's response to contemporary issues and societal problems (e.g., education, welfare system, health insurance, childcare, crime) and the needs, wants and demands of its citizens (e.g., individuals, political action committees, special interest groups, political parties)

      • SS-H-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will examine issues related to the intent of the Constitution of the United States and its amendments:

        • SS-H-GC-S- Standard:

          Explain the principles of limited government (e.g., rule of law, federalism, checks and balances, majority rule, protection of minority rights, separation of powers) and how effective these principles are in protecting individual rights and promoting the 'common good'

        • SS-H-GC-S- Standard:

          Analyze how powers of government are distributed and shared among levels and branches, and how this distribution of powers works to protect the 'common good' (e.g., Congress legislates on behalf of the people, the President represents the people as a nation, the Supreme Court acts on behalf of the people as a whole when it interprets the Constitution)

      • SS-H-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate the rights of individuals (e.g., Freedom of Information Act, free speech, civic responsibilities in solving global issues) to explain how those rights can sometimes be in conflict with the responsibility of the government to protect the 'common good' (e.g., homeland security issues, environmental regulations, censorship, search and seizure), the rights of others (e.g., slander, libel), and civic responsibilities (e.g., personal belief/responsibility versus civic responsibility)

      • SS-H-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will evaluate the impact citizens have on the functioning of a democratic government by assuming responsibilities (e.g., seeking and assuming leadership positions, voting) and duties (e.g., serving as jurors, paying taxes, complying with local, state and federal laws, serving in the armed forces)

      • SS-H-GC-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze and synthesize a variety of information from print and non-print sources (e.g., books, documents, articles, interviews, Internet, film, media) to research issues, perspectives and solutions to problems

    • SS-H-CS. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Cultures and Societies - Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, communication) connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World, and that issues and challenges unite and divide them. (Academic Expectations 2.16, 2.17)

      • SS-H-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that culture is a system of beliefs, knowledge, institutions, customs/traditions, languages and skills shared by a group. Through a society's culture, individuals learn the relationships, structures, patterns and processes to be members of the society.

      • SS-H-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that social institutions (e.g., government, economy, education, religion, family) respond to human needs, structure society, and influence behavior within different cultures.

      • SS-H-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that interactions among individuals and groups assume various forms (e.g., compromise, cooperation, conflict, competition) and are influenced by culture.

      • SS-H-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that culture affects how people in a society behave in relation to groups and their environment.

      • SS-H-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that a variety of factors promote cultural diversity in a society, a nation, and the world.

      • SS-H-CS-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that an appreciation of the diverse nature of cultures is essential in our global society.

      • SS-H-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of culture:

        • SS-H-CS-S- Standard:

          Analyze cultural elements of diverse groups in the United States (Reconstruction to present)

        • SS-H-CS-S- Standard:

          Describe how belief systems, knowledge, technology, and behavior patterns define cultures

        • SS-H-CS-S- Standard:

          Analyze historical perspectives and events in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present) in terms of how they have affected and been affected by cultural issues and elements

      • SS-H-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will describe and compare how various human needs are met through interactions with and among social institutions (e.g., family, religion, education, government, economy) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present)

      • SS-H-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will explain or give examples of how communications between groups can be influenced by cultural differences; explain the reasons why conflict and competition (e.g., violence, difference of opinion, stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, genocide) developed as cultures emerged in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and in the United States (Reconstruction to present)

      • SS-H-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will describe how compromise and cooperation are characteristics that influence interaction (e.g., peace studies, treaties, conflict resolution) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present)

      • SS-H-CS-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will compare examples of cultural elements (e.g., beliefs, customs/traditions, languages, skills, literature, the arts) of diverse groups today to those of the past, using information from a variety of print and non-print sources (e.g., autobiographies, biographies, documentaries, news media, artifacts)

    • SS-H-Ec. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Economics - Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others, the nation and the world. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies, and governments. (Academic Expectations 2.18)

      • SS-H-Ec-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the basic economic problem confronting individuals, societies and governments is scarcity; as a result of scarcity, economic choices and decisions must be made.

      • SS-H-Ec-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that economic systems are created by individuals, societies and governments to achieve broad goals (e.g., security, growth, freedom, efficiency, equity).

      • SS-H-Ec-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that markets (e.g., local, national, global) are institutional arrangements that enable buyers and sellers to exchange goods and services.

      • SS-H-Ec-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that all societies deal with questions about production, distribution and consumption.

      • SS-H-Ec-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that a variety of fundamental economic concepts (e.g., supply and demand, opportunity cost) affect individuals, societies and governments.

      • SS-H-Ec-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that our global economy provides for a level of interdependence among individuals, societies and governments of the world.

      • SS-H-Ec-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the United States Government and its policies play a major role in the performance of the U.S. economy at both the national and international levels.

      • SS-H-Ec-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that in a global economy, interdependence results in economic conditions and policies in one nation affecting economic conditions in other nations.

      • SS-H-Ec-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of limited resources and scarcity in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present):

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Explain how scarcity of resources necessitates choices at both the personal and societal levels, and explain the impact of those choices

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Explain how governments with limited budgets consider revenues, costs and opportunity when planning expenditures

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Describe how economic institutions (e.g., corporations, labor unions, banks, stock markets, cooperatives, partnerships) help to deal with scarcity

      • SS-H-Ec-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will compare and contrast economic systems (e.g., traditional, command, market, mixed), and evaluate their effectiveness in achieving broad social goals (e.g., freedom, efficiency, equity, security)

      • SS-H-Ec-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze free enterprise systems, and explain strategies for maximizing profits based on different roles in the economy (e.g., producers, entrepreneurs, workers, savers and investors)

      • SS-H-Ec-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will describe relationships between and among markets (e.g., local, national, global) and exchange of goods and services:

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Explain factors that influence the supply and demand of products (e.g., supply - technology, cost of inputs, number of sellers; demand - income, utility, price of similar products, consumers' preferences)

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Describe how financial and non-financial incentives influence individuals differently (e.g., discounts, sales promotions, trends, personal convictions)

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Explain or model cause-effect relationships between the level of competition in a market and the number of buyers and sellers

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Research laws and government mandates (e.g., anti-trust legislation, tariff policy, regulatory policy) and analyze their purposes and effects in the United States and in the global marketplace

      • SS-H-Ec-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services:

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Analyze changing relationships between and among business, labor and government (e.g., unions, anti-trust laws, tariff policy, price controls, subsidies, tax incentives), and examine the effects of those changing relationships on production, distribution and consumption in the United States

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Describe how different factors (e.g., new knowledge, technological change, investments in capital goods and human capital/resources) have increased productivity in the world

      • SS-H-Ec-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will explain results and issues related to interdependence of personal, national and international economic activities (e.g., natural resource dependencies, economic sanctions, environmental and humanitarian issues) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present):

        • SS-H-Ec-S- Standard:

          Analyze how economies of nations around the world (e.g., China, India, Japan) affect and are affected by American economic policies

    • SS-H-Ge. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Geography - Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future. (Academic Expectations 2.19)

      • SS-H-Ge-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that patterns emerge as humans move, settle and interact on Earth's surface, and can be identified by examining the location of physical and human characteristics, how they are arranged, and why they are in particular locations. Economic, political, cultural and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations, interdependence, cooperation and conflict.

      • SS-H-Ge-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that regions help us to see the Earth as an integrated system of places and features organized by such principles as landform types, political units, economic patterns and cultural groups. People vary in how they organize, interpret and use information about places and regions.

      • SS-H-Ge-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that human actions modify the physical environment and, in turn, the physical environment limits or promotes human activities.

      • SS-H-Ge-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that human and physical features of the Earth's surface can be identified by absolute and relative location.

      • SS-H-Ge-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the use of maps, geographic tools, and mental maps helps interpret information, analyze patterns and spatial data, predict consequences and find/propose solutions to world problems.

      • SS-H-Ge-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that citizens in an interdependent global community impact their physical environments through the use of land and other resources.

      • SS-H-Ge-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that environmental changes and physical and human geographic factors have influenced world economic, political, and social conditions.

      • SS-H-Ge-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that many of the important issues facing societies involve the consequences of interactions between human and physical systems. Complex interrelationships between societies and their physical environments influence conditions locally, regionally and globally.

      • SS-H-Ge-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will use a variety of geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, charts, graphs, photographs, models, data bases, satellite images):

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Analyze the distribution of physical and human features on Earth's surface

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Interpret patterns and develop rationales for the location and distribution of Earth's human features (e.g., available transportation, location of resources and markets, individual preference, centralization versus dispersion)

      • SS-H-Ge-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate regions of the Earth's surface using information from print and non-print sources (e.g., books, films, periodicals, Internet, geographic tools, news media):

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Analyze pros and cons of physical (e.g., climate, mountains, rivers) and human characteristics (e.g., interstate highways, urban centers, workforce) of regions in terms of human activity

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Explain how cultural differences and perspectives sometimes result in conflicts in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present)

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Interpret how places and regions serve as meaningful symbols for individuals and societies (e.g., Jerusalem, Vietnam Memorial, Ellis Island, the Appalachian region)

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Evaluate reasons for stereotypes (e.g., all cities are dangerous and dirty; rural areas are poor) associated with places or regions

      • SS-H-Ge-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will describe movement and settlement patterns in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present):

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Analyze the causes of movement and settlement (e.g., famines, military conflicts, climate, economic opportunity) and their impacts in different places and at different times in history

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Explain how technology has facilitated the movement of goods, services and populations, increased economic interdependence, and influenced development of centers of economic activity (e.g., cities, interstate highways, airports, rivers, railroads, computers, telecommunications)

      • SS-H-Ge-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate interactions among human activities and the physical environment in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present):

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Describe human strategies (e.g., transportation, communication, technology) used to overcome limits of the physical environment

        • SS-H-Ge-S- Standard:

          Interpret and analyze possible global effects (e.g., global warming, destruction of the rainforest, acid rain) of human modifications to the physical environment (e.g., deforestation, mining), perspectives on the use of natural resources (e.g., oil, water, land), and natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, floods)

    • SS-H-HP. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Big Idea

      Historical Perspective - History is an account of events, people, ideas, and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States and the World. (Academic Expectations 2.20)

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that history is an account of human activities that is interpretive in nature, and a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources, data, artifacts) are needed to analyze historical events.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that history is a series of connected events shaped by multiple cause-effect relationships, tying past to present.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that geography and natural resources have a significant impact on historical perspectives and events.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that advances in research, science and technology have a significant impact on historical events, American society, and the global community.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that U.S. History can be analyzed by examining significant eras (Reconstruction, Industrialization, Progressive Movement, World War I, Great Depression and the New Deal, World War II, Cold War, Contemporary United States) to develop chronological understanding and recognize cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that U.S. History has been impacted by significant individuals and groups.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that each era in the history of the United States has social, political and economic characteristics.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that the role of the United States in the global community has evolved into that of a world power.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that world civilizations (e.g., African, Asian, European, Latin American, Middle Eastern) can be analyzed by examining significant eras (Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Exploration, Age of Revolution, Nationalism and Imperialism, Technological Age, 21st Century) to develop chronological understanding and recognize cause-effect relationships and multiple causation.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that world civilizations share common characteristics (e.g., government, belief system, economy) and have been impacted by significant individuals and groups.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that each era in the history of the world has social, political and economic characteristics.

      • SS-H-HP-U- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Understandings - Students will understand that an increasingly interdependent world provides challenges and opportunities.

      • SS-H-HP-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate an understanding of the interpretative nature of history using a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources, Internet, timelines, maps, data):

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Investigate and analyze perceptions and perspectives (e.g., gender, race, region, ethnic group, nationality, age, economic status, religion, politics, geographic factors) of people and historical events in the modern world (world civilizations, U.S. history)

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Examine multiple cause-effect relationships that have shaped history (e.g., showing how a series of events are connected)

      • SS-H-HP-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze how the United States participates with the global community to maintain and restore world peace (e.g., League of Nations, United Nations, Cold War politics, Persian Gulf War), and evaluate the impact of these efforts

      • SS-H-HP-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will research issues or interpret accounts of historical events in U.S. history using primary and secondary sources (e.g., biographies, films, periodicals, Internet resources, textbooks, artifacts):

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Compare, contrast and evaluate the approaches and effectiveness of Reconstruction programs

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Explain how the rise of big business, factories, mechanized farming, and the labor movement have impacted the lives of Americans

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Examine the impact of massive immigration (e.g., new social patterns, conflicts in ideas about national unity amid growing cultural diversity) after the Civil War

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Explain and evaluate the impact of significant social, political and economic changes (e.g., imperialism to isolationism, industrial capitalism, urbanization, political corruption, initiation of reforms) during the Progressive Movement, World War I and the Twenties

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Evaluate how the Great Depression, New Deal policies, and World War II transformed America socially and politically at home (e.g., stock market crash, relief, recovery, reform initiatives, increased role of government in business, influx of women into workforce, rationing) and reshaped its role in world affairs (emergence of the U.S. as economic and political superpower)

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Analyze economic growth in America after WWII (e.g., suburban growth), struggles for racial and gender equality (e.g., Civil Rights Movement), the extension of civil liberties, and conflicts over political issues (e.g., McCarthyism, U.S. involvement in Vietnam)

      • SS-H-HP-S- Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Program of Studies

        Skills and Concepts - Students will research issues or interpret accounts of historical events in world history using primary and secondary sources (e.g., biographies, films, periodicals, Internet resources, textbooks, artifacts):

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Explain how ideas of the Classical Age (e.g., humanism, developments in art and architecture, literature, political theories, rediscovery of Greco-Roman philosophies) impacted people's perspectives during the Renaissance and Reformation

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Analyze how new ideas and technologies of the Age of Exploration by Europeans brought great wealth to the absolute monarchies and resulted in political, economic and social changes (e.g., disease, religious ideas, technologies, new plants/animals, forms of government) to the other regions of the world

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Investigate how political, social and cultural revolutions (e.g., French, Industrial, Bolshevik, Chinese) brought about changes in science, thought, government, or industry and had long-range impacts on the modern world

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Examine how nationalism, militarism, expansionism and imperialism led to conflicts (e.g., World War I, Japanese aggression in China and the Pacific, European imperialism in Africa, World War II) and the rise of totalitarian governments (e.g., Communism in Russia, Fascism in Italy, Nazism in Germany)

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Analyze the impact of the rise of both the United States and the Soviet Union to superpower status following World War II, development of the Cold War, and the formation of new nations in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East

        • SS-H-HP-S- Standard:

          Examine how countries around the world have addressed the challenges of rapid social, political and economic changes during the second half of the 20th century (e.g., population growth, diminishing natural resources, environmental concerns, human rights issues, technological and scientific advances, shifting political alliances, globalization of the economy)

  • KY.AE. Category: Academic Expectation

    • AE.1. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain:

      Students are able to use basic communication and mathematics skills for purposes and situations they will encounter throughout their lives.

      • 1.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students use reference tools such as dictionaries, almanacs, encyclopedias, and computer reference programs and research tools such as interviews and surveys to find the information they need to meet specific demands, explore interests, or solve specific problems.

      • 1.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of the variety of materials they read.

      • 1.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of the various things they observe.

      • 1.4. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of the various messages to which they listen.

      • 1.5-1.9. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students use mathematical ideas and procedures to communicate, reason, and solve problems.

      • 1.10. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students organize information through development and use of classification rules and systems.

      • 1.11. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students write using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

      • 1.12. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students speak using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.

      • 1.13. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with the visual arts.

      • 1.14. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with music.

      • 1.15. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students make sense of and communicate ideas with movement.

      • 1.16. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Students use computers and other kinds of technology to collect, organize, and communicate information and ideas.

    • AE.2. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain:

      Students shall develop their abilities to apply core concepts and principles from mathematics, the sciences, the arts, the humanities, social studies, practical living studies, and vocational studies to what they will encounter throughout their lives.

      • 2.14. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students understand the democratic principles of justice, equality, responsibility, and freedom and apply them to real-life situations.

      • 2.15. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students can accurately describe various forms of government and analyze issues that relate to the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democracy.

      • 2.16. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students observe, analyze, and interpret human behaviors, social groupings, and institutions to better understand people and the relationships among individuals and among groups.

      • 2.17. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students interact effectively and work cooperatively with the many ethnic and cultural groups of our nation and world.

      • 2.18. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students understand economic principles and are able to make economic decisions that have consequences in daily living.

      • 2.19. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students recognize and understand the relationship between people and geography and apply their knowledge in real-life situations.

      • 2.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer: Social Studies

        Students understand, analyze, and interpret historical events, conditions, trends, and issues to develop historical perspective.

  • KY.CC. Category: Core Content for Assessment v.4.1.

    • SS-HS-1. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain:

      Government and Civics The study of government and civics equips students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of representative democracy in the United States, including its fundamental principles, structure and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies.

      • SS-HS-1.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Formation of Governments

        • SS-HS-1.1. Standard:

          Students will compare and contrast (purposes, sources of power) various forms of government in the world (e.g., monarchy, democracy, republic, dictatorship) and evaluate how effective they have been in establishing order, providing security and accomplishing common goals. DOK 3

        • SS-HS-1.1. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how democratic governments preserve and protect the rights and liberties of their constituents through different sources (e.g., U.N. Charter, Declaration of the Rights of Man, U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, U.S. Constitution). DOK 2

        • SS-HS-1.1. Standard:

          Students will evaluate how the U.S. government's response to contemporary issues and societal problems (e.g., education, welfare system, health insurance, childcare, crime) reflects the needs, wants and demands of its citizens (e.g., individuals, political action committees, special interest groups, political parties).

      • SS-HS-1.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Constitutional Principles

        • SS-HS-1.2. Standard:

          Students will analyze how powers of government are distributed and shared among levels and branches and evaluate how this distribution of powers protects the 'common good' (e.g., Congress legislates on behalf of the people; the President represents the people as a nation; the Supreme Court acts on behalf of the people as a whole when it interprets the Constitution). DOK 3

        • SS-HS-1.2. Standard:

          Students will interpret the principles of limited government (e.g., rule of law, federalism, checks and balances, majority rule, protection of minority rights, separation of powers) and evaluate how these principles protect individual rights and promote the 'common good.' DOK 3

      • SS-HS-1.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Rights and Responsibilities

        • SS-HS-1.3. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples how the rights of one individual (e.g., smoking in public places, free speech) may, at times, be in conflict (e.g., slander, libel) with the rights of another. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-1.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how the rights of an individual (e.g., Freedom of information Act, privacy) may, at times, be in conflict with the responsibility of the government to protect the 'common good' (e.g., homeland security issues, environmental regulations, censorship, search and seizure). DOK 2

        • SS-HS-1.3. Standard:

          Students will evaluate the impact citizens have on the functioning of a democratic government by assuming responsibilities (e.g., seeking and assuming leadership positions, voting) and duties (e.g., serving as jurors, paying taxes, complying with local, state and federal laws, serving in the armed forces). DOK 3

    • SS-HS-2. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Cultures and Societies

      Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, communication) connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World, and that issues and challenges unite and divide them.

      • SS-HS-2.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Elements of Culture

        • SS-HS-2.1. Standard:

          Students will explain how belief systems, knowledge, technology and behavior patterns define cultures and help to explain historical perspectives and events in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present). DOK 2

      • SS-HS-2.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Social Institutions

        • SS-HS-2.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how various human needs are met through interaction in and among social institutions (e.g., family, religion, education, government, economy) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present).

      • SS-HS-2.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Interactions Among Individuals and Groups

        • SS-HS-2.3. Standard:

          Students will explain the reasons why conflict and competition (e.g., violence, difference of opinion, stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, genocide) may develop as cultures emerge in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present). DOK 2

        • SS-HS-2.3. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how compromise and cooperation are characteristics that influence interaction (e.g., peace studies, treaties, conflict resolution) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present). DOK 2

    • SS-HS-3. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Economics

      Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others, the nation and the world. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies and governments.

      • SS-HS-3.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Scarcity

        • SS-HS-3.1. Standard:

          Students will give examples of and explain how scarcity of resources necessitates choices at both the personal and societal levels in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present) and explain the impact of those choices. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-3.1. Standard:

          Students will explain how governments have limited budgets, so they must compare revenues to costs and consider opportunity cost when planning public projects.

      • SS-HS-3.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Economic Systems and Institutions

        • SS-HS-3.2. Standard:

          Students will compare and contrast economic systems (traditional, command, market, mixed) based on their abilities to achieve broad social goals such as freedom, efficiency, equity, security and growth in the modern world. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-3.2. Standard:

          Students will describe economic institutions such as corporations, labor unions, banks, stock markets, cooperatives and partnerships.

        • SS-HS-3.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how, in a free enterprise system, individuals attempt to maximize their profits based on their role in the economy (e.g., producers try to maximize resources, entrepreneurs try to maximize profits, workers try to maximize income, savers and investors try to maximize return). DOK 2

      • SS-HS-3.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Markets

        • SS-HS-3.3. Standard: Students will explain and give examples of how numerous factors influence the supply and demand of products (e.g., supply - technology, cost of inputs, number of sellers

          demand - income, utility, price of similar products, consumers' preferences). DOK 2

        • SS-HS-3.3. Standard:

          Students will describe how specific financial and non-financial incentives often influence individuals differently (e.g., discounts, sales promotions, trends, personal convictions).

        • SS-HS-3.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how the level of competition in a market is largely determined by the number of buyers and sellers.

        • SS-HS-3.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how laws and government mandates (e.g., anti-trust legislation, tariff policy, regulatory policy) have been adopted to maintain competition in the United States and in the global marketplace.

      • SS-HS-3.4. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Production, Distribution, and Consumption

        • SS-HS-3.4. Standard:

          Students will analyze the changing relationships among business, labor and government (e.g., unions, anti-trust laws, tariff policy, price controls, subsidies, tax incentives) and how each has affected production, distribution and consumption in the United States or the world. DOK 3

        • SS-HS-3.4. Standard:

          Students will describe and give examples of how factors such as technological change, investments in capital goods and human capital/resources have increased productivity in the world. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-3.4. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how interdependence of personal, national and international economic activities often results in international issues and concerns (e.g., natural resource dependencies, economic sanctions, environmental and humanitarian issues) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present). DOK 2

    • SS-HS-4. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Geography

      Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future.

      • SS-HS-4.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The Use of Geographic Tools

        • SS-HS-4.1. Standard:

          Students will use a variety of geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, photographs, models, satellite images, charts, graphs, databases) to explain and analyze the reasons for the distribution of physical and human features on Earth's surface. DOK 3

        • SS-HS-4.1. Standard:

          Students will explain how mental maps, the mental image a person has of an area including knowledge of features and spatial relationships, become more complex as experience, study and the media bring new geographic information.

        • SS-HS-4.1. Standard:

          Students will use geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, photographs, models, satellite images) to interpret the reasoning patterns (e.g., available transportation, location of resources and markets, individual preference, centralization versus dispersion) on which the location and distribution of Earth's human features is based.

      • SS-HS-4.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Regions

        • SS-HS-4.2. Standard:

          Students will interpret how places and regions serve as meaningful symbols for individuals and societies (e.g., Jerusalem, Vietnam Memorial, Ellis Island, the Appalachian region).

        • SS-HS-4.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how physical (e.g., climate, mountains, rivers) and human characteristics (e.g., interstate highways, urban centers, workforce) of regions create advantages and disadvantages for human activities in a specific place. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-4.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how people can develop stereotypes about places and regions (e.g., all cities are dangerous and dirty; rural areas are poor).

        • SS-HS-4.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how people from different cultures with different perspectives view regions (e.g., Middle East, Balkans) in different ways, sometimes resulting in conflict in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present).

      • SS-HS-4.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Patterns

        • SS-HS-4.3. Standard:

          Students will describe the movement and settlement patterns of people in various places and analyze the causes of that movement and settlement (e.g., push factors such as famines or military conflicts; pull factors such as climate or economic opportunity) and the impacts in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present). DOK 3

        • SS-HS-4.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how technology (e.g., computers, telecommunications) has facilitated the movement of goods, services and populations, increased economic interdependence at all levels and influenced development of centers of economic activity. DOK 2

      • SS-HS-4.4. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        Human-Environment Interaction

        • SS-HS-4.4. Standard:

          Students will explain how humans develop strategies (e.g., transportation, communication, technology) to overcome limits of their physical environment.

        • SS-HS-4.4. Standard:

          Students will explain how human modifications to the physical environment (e.g., deforestation, mining), perspectives on the use of natural resources (e.g., oil, water, land), and natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, floods) may have possible global effects (e.g., global warming, destruction of the rainforest, acid rain) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present). DOK 2

        • SS-HS-4.4. Standard:

          Students will explain how group and individual perspectives impact the use of natural resources (e.g., mineral extraction, land reclamation).

    • SS-HS-5. Goal / Understandings / Subdomain: Historical Perspective

      History is an account of events, people, ideas, and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States and the World.

      • SS-HS-5.1. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The Factual and Interpretive Nature of History

        • SS-HS-5.1. Standard:

          Students will use a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources, data, artifacts) to analyze perceptions and perspectives (e.g., gender, race, region, ethnic group, nationality, age, economic status, religion, politics, geographic factors) of people and historical events in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States History (Reconstruction to present). DOK 3

        • SS-HS-5.1. Standard:

          Students will analyze how history is a series of connected events shaped by multiple cause and effect relationships, tying past to present. DOK 3

      • SS-HS-5.2. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The History of the United States

        • SS-HS-5.2. Standard:

          Students will compare and contrast the ways in which various Reconstruction plans were approached and evaluate the outcomes of Reconstruction. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-5.2. Standard:

          Students will explain how the rise of big business, factories, mechanized farming and the labor movement impacted the lives of Americans. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-5.2. Standard:

          Students will explain the impact of massive immigration (e.g., new social patterns, conflicts in ideas about national unity amid growing cultural diversity) after the Civil War. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-5.2. Standard:

          Students will explain and evaluate the impact of significant social, political and economic changes during the Progressive Movement (e.g., industrial capitalism, urbanization, political corruption, initiation of reforms), World War I (e.g., imperialism to isolationism, nationalism) and the Twenties (e.g., economic prosperity, consumerism, women's suffrage). DOK 3

        • SS-HS-5.2. Standard:

          Students will evaluate how the Great Depression, New Deal policies and World War II transformed America socially and politically at home (e.g., stock market crash, relief, recovery, reform initiatives, increased role of government in business, influx of women into workforce, rationing) and reshaped its role in world affairs (e.g., emergence of the U.S. as economic and political superpower). DOK 3

        • SS-HS-5.2. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how after WWII, America experienced economic growth (e.g., suburban growth), struggles for racial and gender equality (e.g., Civil Rights Movement), the extension of civil liberties (e.g., desegregation, Civil Rights Acts) and conflict over political issues (e.g., McCarthyism, U.S. involvement in Vietnam). DOK 3

        • SS-HS-5.2. Standard:

          Students will analyze how the United States participates with the global community to maintain and restore world peace (e.g., League of Nations, United Nations, Cold War politics, Persian Gulf War) and evaluate the impact of these efforts. DOK 3

      • SS-HS-5.3. Ae / Skills & Concepts / Organizer:

        The History of the World

        • SS-HS-5.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how humans began to rediscover the ideas of the Classical Age (e.g., humanism, developments in art and architecture, literature, political theories) and to question their place in the universe during the Renaissance and Reformation. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-5.3. Standard:

          Students will explain and give examples of how new ideas and technologies led to an Age of Exploration by Europeans that brought great wealth to the absolute monarchies and caused significant political, economic and social changes (disease, religious ideas, technologies, new plants/animals, forms of government) to the other regions of the world. DOK 2

        • SS-HS-5.3. Standard:

          Students will analyze how an Age of Revolution brought about changes in science, thought, government and industry (e.g., Newtonian physics, free trade principles, rise of democratic principles, development of the modern state) that shaped the modern world, and evaluate the long range impact of these changes on the modern world. DOK 3

        • SS-HS-5.3. Standard:

          Students will analyze how nationalism, militarism and imperialism led to world conflicts and the rise of totalitarian governments (e.g., European imperialism in Africa, World War I, the Bolshevik Revolution, Nazism, World War II). DOK 3

        • SS-HS-5.3. Standard:

          Students will explain the rise of both the United States and the Soviet Union to superpower status following World War II, the subsequent development of the Cold War, and the formation of new nations in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and evaluate the impact of these events on the global community. DOK 3

        • SS-HS-5.3. Standard:

          Students will explain how the second half of the 20th century was characterized by rapid social, political and economic changes that created new challenges (e.g., population growth, diminishing natural resources, environmental concerns, human rights issues, technological and scientific advances, shifting political alliances, globalization of the economy) in countries around the world, and give examples of how countries have addressed these challenges. DOK 2

 
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