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Kansas: 7th-Grade Standards

  • KS.1. Standard: Civics-Government

    The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of governmental systems of Kansas and the United States and other nations with an emphasis on the United States Constitution, the necessity for the rule of law, the civic values of the American people, and the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of becoming active participants in our representative democracy.

    • 1.1. Benchmark:

      The student understands the rule of law as it applies to individuals; family; school; local, state and national governments.

      • 1.1.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level: (K) The student understands the difference between criminal and civil law as it applies to individual citizens (e.g., criminal

        felony, misdemeanor, crimes against people, crimes against property, white-collar crimes, victimless crimes; civil: contracts, property settlements, child custody).

      • 1.1.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student compares how juveniles and adults are treated differently under law (e.g., due process, trial, age restrictions, punishment, rehabilitation, diversion).

      • 1.1.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student evaluates the importance of the rule of law in protecting individual rights and promoting the common good.

    • 1.2. Benchmark:

      The student understands the shared ideals and diversity of American society and political culture.

      • 1.2.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student defines the rights guaranteed, granted, and protected by the Kansas Constitution and its amendments.

    • 1.3. Benchmark:

      The student understands how the United States Constitution allocates power and responsibility in the government.

      • 1.3.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains the three branches of Kansas government.

      • 1.3.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level: (K) The student explains how authority and responsibility are balanced and divided between national and state governments in a federal system (e.g., federal

        postage regulation, coinage of money, federal highways, national defense; state: state highways, state parks, education).

      • 1.3.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains why separation of powers and a system of checks and balances are important to limit government.

      • 1.3.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes how citizens, legislators, and interest groups are involved in a bill becoming a law at the state level.

    • 1.4. Benchmark:

      The student identifies and examines the rights, privileges, and responsibilities in becoming an active civic participant.

      • 1.4.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student designs, researches and completes a civic project related to a public issue at the state or local level (e.g., designs and carries out a civic-oriented project).

      • 1.4.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student knows various procedures for contacting appropriate representatives for the purpose of expressing ideas or asking for help at the state or local level (e.g., public hearing, open meeting, phone, email, letter, personal interview).

    • 1.5. Benchmark:

      The student understands various systems of governments and how nations and international organizations interact.

      • 1.5.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student recognizes that cities are formed through a process of incorporation, establishing boundaries, creating a government, levying taxes.

      • 1.5.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student identifies the types of local government (e.g., cities, townships, counties)

      • 1.5.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student identifies the goods and services provided by local government in the community (e.g., education, health agency, fire department, police, care for local community property, parks and recreation).

      • 1.5.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student researches the roles of people who make up local government (e.g., police, mayor/city manager, county commissioner, city council members, school board members).

      • 1.5.5. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student understands the role of school boards.

  • KS.2. Standard: Economics

    The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of major economic concepts, issues, and systems applying decision-making skills as a consumer, producer, saver, investor, and citizen of Kansas and the United States living in an interdependent world.

    • 2.1. Benchmark:

      The student understands how limited resources require choices.

      • 2.1.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level: (K) The student identifies substitutes and complements for selected goods and services (e.g., substitutes

        sod houses vs. wood houses, wagons vs. railroads; complements: trains and rails, wagons and wheels).

      • 2.1.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains that how people choose to use resources has both present and future consequences.

    • 2.2. Benchmark:

      The student understands how the market economy works in the United States.

      • 2.2.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student analyzes the impact of inflation or deflation on the value of money and people's purchasing power (e.g., cattle towns, mining towns, time of 'boom', time of depression).

    • 2.3. Benchmark:

      The student analyzes how different incentives, economic systems and their institutions, and local, national, and international interdependence affect people.

      • 2.3.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student describes examples of factors that might influence international trade (e.g., United States economic sanctions, weather, exchange rates, war, boycotts, embargos).

      • 2.3.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains the costs and benefits of trade between people across nations (e.g., job loss vs. cheaper prices, environmental costs vs. wider selection of goods and services).

      • 2.3.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student gives examples of factors that might influence international trade (e.g., United States economic sanctions, weather, exchange rate, war, boycotts, embargos).

      • 2.3.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student gives examples of how tariffs, quotas, and other trade barriers affect consumers and the prices of goods (e.g., a country fearful of purchasing Kansas beef for fear of disease, tariffs on Kansas wheat).

    • 2.4. Benchmark:

      The student analyzes the role of the government in the economy.

      • 2.4.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student identifies goods and services provided by local, state, and national governments (e.g., transportation, education, defense).

      • 2.4.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student examines relationship between local and state revenues and expenditures (e.g., school bonds, sales tax, property tax, teacher salaries, curbs and gutters, police force).

    • 2.5. Benchmark:

      The student makes effective decisions as a consumer, producer, saver, investor, and citizen.

      • 2.5.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student compares the benefits and costs of spending, saving, or borrowing decisions based on information about products and services.

      • 2.5.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains how an individual's income will differ in the labor market depending on supply of and demand for his/her human capital (e.g., skills, abilities, and/or education level).

  • KS.3. Standard: Geography

    The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of the spatial organization of Earth's surface and relationships between peoples and places and physical and human environments in order to explain the interactions that occur in Kansas, the United States, and in our world.

    • 3.1. Benchmark: Geographic Tools and Location

      The student uses maps, graphic representations, tools, and technologies to locate, use, and present information about people, places, and environments.

      • 3.1.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student locates major political and physical features of Earth from memory and describes the relative location of those features (e.g., see Appendix 2 for list of items).

      • 3.1.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student develops and uses different kinds of maps, globes, graphs, charts, databases, and models.

      • 3.1.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level: (A) The student uses mental maps of Kansas to answer questions about the location of physical and human features (e.g., drier in the West; major rivers; population centers; major cities

        Topeka, Wichita, Hays, Dodge City, Kansas City; major interstates and highways: I-70, US 56).

      • 3.1.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student selects and explains reasons for using different geographic tools, graphic representation, and/or technologies to analyze selected geographic problems (e.g., map projections, aerial photographs, satellite images, geographic information systems).

      • 3.1.5. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student uses geographic tools, graphic representation, and/or technologies to pose and answer questions about past and present spatial distributions and patterns (e.g., mountain ranges, river systems, field patterns, settlements, transportation routes).

    • 3.2. Benchmark: Places and Regions

      The student analyzes the human and physical features that give places and regions their distinctive character.

      • 3.2.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student identifies and compares the physical characteristics of world regions (e.g., locations, landscape, climate, vegetation, resources).

      • 3.2.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student identifies and compares the human characteristics of world regions (e.g., people, religion, language, customs, government, agriculture, industry, architecture, arts, education).

      • 3.2.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student identifies and explains how Kansas, United States, and world regions are interdependent (e.g., through trade, diffusion of ideas, human migration, international conflicts and cooperation).

      • 3.2.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level: (K) The student identifies the various physical and human criteria that can be used to define a region (e.g., physical

        mountain, coastal, climate; human: religion, ethnicity, language, economic, government).

      • 3.2.5. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student identifies ways technology or culture has influenced regions (e.g., perceptions of resource availability, dominance of specific regions, economic development).

      • 3.2.6. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student explains the effects of a label on the image of a region (e.g., Tornado Alley, Sun Belt, The Great 'American' Desert).

    • 3.3. Benchmark: Physical Systems

      The student understands Earth's physical systems and how physical processes shape Earth's surface.

      • 3.3.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains how earth-sun relationships affect earth's physical processes and create physical patterns (e.g., latitude regions, climate regions, distribution of solar energy, ocean currents).

      • 3.3.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains patterns in the physical environment in terms of physical processes (e.g., tectonic plates, glaciation, erosion and deposition, hydrologic cycle, ocean and atmospheric circulation).

      • 3.3.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level: (K) The student describes the characteristics of ecosystems in terms of their biodiversity (e.g., biodiversity

        food chains, plant and animal communities; ecosystems: grasslands, temperate forests, tropical rainforests, deserts, tundra, wetlands, and marine environments).

      • 3.3.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains the challenges faced by ecosystems (e.g., effects of shifting cultivation, contamination of coastal waters, rainforest destruction, desertification, deforestation, overpopulation, natural disasters).

    • 3.4. Benchmark: Human Systems

      The student understands how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations, interdependence, cooperation, and conflict.

      • 3.4.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student describes and analyzes population characteristics through the use of demographic concepts (e.g., population pyramids, birth/death rates, population growth rates, migration patterns).

      • 3.4.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains how the spread of cultural elements results in distinctive cultural landscapes (e.g., religion, language, customs, ethnic neighborhoods, foods).

      • 3.4.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student identifies the geographic factors that influence world trade and interdependence (e.g., location advantage, resource distribution, labor cost, technology, trade networks and organizations).

    • 3.5. Benchmark: Human-Environment Interactions

      The student understands the effects of interactions between human and physical systems.

      • 3.5.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student identifies ways in which technologies have modified the physical environment of various world cultures (e.g., dams, levees, aqueducts, irrigation, roads, bridges, plow).

      • 3.5.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes the consequences of having or not having particular resources (e.g., resource movement and consumption, relationship between access to resources and living standards, relationship between competition for resources and world conflicts).

  • KS.4. Standard: History (Kansas, United States, and World History)

    The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of significant individuals, groups, ideas, events, eras, and developments in the history of Kansas, the United States, and the world, utilizing essential analytical and research skills.

    • 4.1. Benchmark:

      The student understands individuals, groups, ideas, events, and developments during the period before settlement in pre-territorial Kansas (pre 1854).

      • 4.1.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student compares and contrasts nomadic and sedentary tribes in Kansas (e.g., food, housing, art, customs).

      • 4.1.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student describes the social and economic impact of Spanish, French and American explorers and traders on the Indian tribes in Kansas.

      • 4.1.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains how Stephen H. Long's classification of Kansas as the 'Great American Desert' influenced later United States government policy on American Indian relocation.

      • 4.1.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student analyzes the impact of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 on the way of life for emigrant Indian tribes relocated to Kansas (e.g., loss of land and customary resources, disease and starvation, assimilation, inter-tribal conflict).

      • 4.1.5. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes the role of early Kansas forts in carrying out the United States government's policies in regards to relocated Indian tribes and travel on the Santa Fe and Oregon-California trails (e.g., Fort Leavenworth, Fort Scott, Fort Larned, and Fort Riley).

    • 4.2. Benchmark:

      The student understands individuals, groups, ideas, events, and developments during Kansas territory and the Civil War (1854-1865).

      • 4.2.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student describes the concept of popular sovereignty under the Kansas-Nebraska Act and its impact on developing a state constitution.

      • 4.2.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes how the dispute over slavery shaped life in Kansas Territory (e.g., border ruffians, bushwhackers, jayhawkers, the Underground Railroad, free-staters, abolitionists).

      • 4.2.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student analyzes the importance of 'Bleeding Kansas' to the rest of the United States in the years leading up to the Civil War (e.g., national media attention, caning of Senator Charles Sumner, Emigrant Aid Societies, Beecher Bible and Rifle Colony, poems of John Greenleaf Whittier, John Brown).

      • 4.2.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes the role of important individuals during the territorial period (e.g., Charles Robinson, James Lane, John Brown, Clarina Nichols, Samuel Jones, David Atchison, Andrew H. Reeder).

      • 4.2.5. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student analyzes the Wyandotte Constitution with respect to the civil rights of women and African Americans.

      • 4.2.6. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes important events in Kansas during the Civil War (e.g., Quantrill's Raid on Lawrence, the Battle of Mine Creek, recruitment of volunteer regiments).

    • 4.3. Benchmark:

      The student understands individuals, groups, ideas, events, and developments during the period of expansion and development in Kansas (1860s - 1870s).

      • 4.3.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes the reasons for tension between the American Indians and the United States government over land in Kansas (e.g., encroachment on Indian lands, depletion of the buffalo and other natural resources, the Sand Creek massacre, broken promises).

      • 4.3.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes the United States government's purpose for establishing frontier military forts in Kansas (e.g., protection of people, land, resources).

      • 4.3.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student determines the significance of the cattle drives in post-Civil War Kansas and their impact on the American identity (e.g., Chisholm Trail, cowboys, cattle towns).

      • 4.3.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student traces the migration patterns of at least one European ethnic group to Kansas (e.g., English, French, Germans, German-Russians, Swedes).

      • 4.3.5. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes the reasons for the Exoduster movement from the South to Kansas (e.g., relatively free land, symbol of Kansas as a free state, the rise of Jim Crow laws in the South, promotions of Benjamin 'Pap' Singleton).

      • 4.3.6. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains the impact of government policies and the expansion of the railroad on settlement and town development (e.g., preemption, Homestead Act, Timber Claim Act, railroad lands).

      • 4.3.7. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student uses primary source documents to determine the challenges faced by settlers and their means of adaptations (e.g., drought, depression, grasshoppers, lack of some natural resources, isolation).

    • 4.4. Benchmark:

      The student understands individuals, groups, ideas, events, and developments during the period of reform in Kansas (1880s - 1920s).

      • 4.4.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student describes the movement for women's suffrage and its effect on Kansas politics (e.g., the fight for universal suffrage, impact of women on local elections).

      • 4.4.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes the development of Populism in Kansas (e.g., disillusionment with big Eastern business, railroads, government corruption, high debts and low prices for farmers).

      • 4.4.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains the accomplishments of the Progressive movement in Kansas (e.g. election and government reforms, labor reforms, public health campaigns, regulation of some businesses).

      • 4.4.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level: (K) The student analyzes the impact of Kansas reformers on the nation (e.g., Populists

        Mary E. Lease, Annie Diggs, William Peffer, 'Sockless' Jerry Simpson; Progressives: Carry A. Nation, Samuel Crumbine, William Allen White, Socialists: J.A. Wayland, Kate Richards O'Hare, Emanuel and Marcet Haldeman-Julius).

      • 4.4.5. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes the significance of farm mechanization in Kansas (e.g., increased farm size and production, specialized crops, population redistribution).

      • 4.4.6. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student explains the significance of the work of entrepreneurial Kansans in the aviation industry (e.g., Alvin Longren, Clyde Cessna, Walter and Olive Beech, Lloyd Stearman).

      • 4.4.7. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student describes the contributions made by Mexican immigrants to agriculture and the railroad industry.

    • 4.5. Benchmark:

      The student understands individuals, groups, ideas, events, and developments in Kansas during the Great Depression and World War II. (1930s - 1940s).

      • 4.5.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student compares agricultural practices before and after the dust storms of the 1930s (e.g., rotation of crops, shelter belts, irrigation, terracing, stubble mulch).

      • 4.5.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student uses local resources to describe conditions in his/her community during the Great Depression.

      • 4.5.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student researches the contributions of Kansans during the 1930s & 1940s (e.g., Amelia Earhart, Osa and Martin Johnson, Glenn Cunningham, Walter Chrysler, Langston Hughes, John Steuart Curry, Dwight Eisenhower, Alf Landon, Arthur Capper, Birger Sandzen).

      • 4.5.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student summarizes the effects of New Deal programs on Kansas life.

      • 4.5.5. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains how World War II acted as a catalyst for change in Kansas (e.g., women entering work force, increased mobility, changing manufacturing practices).

    • 4.6. Benchmark:

      The student understands individuals, groups, ideas, events, and developments in contemporary Kansas (since 1950).

      • 4.6.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student analyzes the concept of 'separate but equal is inherently unequal' in regards to the Supreme Court case Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education and how it continues to impact the nation.

      • 4.6.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student describes major flood control projects in the 1950s.

      • 4.6.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student describes the role of Kansas culture in the dramas of Pulitzer prize-winning playwright William Inge and the writings, photos, and films of Gordon Parks.

      • 4.6.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student analyzes the effect of rural depopulation and increased urbanization and suburbanization on Kansas.

      • 4.6.5. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student explains the reasons Southeast Asians immigrated to Kansas after 1975 (e.g., church, community, organizations, jobs, the fall of Southeast Asian governments).

      • 4.6.6. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (K) The student identifies issues facing Kansas state government in the 2000s (e.g., economic diversity, global economy, water issues, school funding).

    • 4.7. Benchmark:

      The student engages in historical thinking skills.

      • 4.7.1. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student analyzes changes over time to make logical inferences concerning cause and effect by examining a topic in Kansas history.

      • 4.7.2. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student examines different types of primary sources in Kansas history and analyzes them in terms of credibility, purpose, and point of view (e.g., census records, diaries, photographs, letters, government documents).

      • 4.7.3. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student uses at least three primary sources to interpret the impact of a person or event from Kansas history to develop an historical narrative.

      • 4.7.4. Indicator / Proficiency Level:

        (A) The student compares contrasting descriptions of the same event in Kansas history to understand how people differ in their interpretations of historical events.

 
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