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Indiana: 10th-Grade Standards

  • IN.E. Standard: Economics
    • E.1. Proficiency Statement: Scarcity and Economic Reasoning Students will understand that productive resources are limited; therefore, people, institutions and governments cannot have all the goods and services they want. As a result, people, institutions and governments must choose some things and give up others.
      • E.1.1. Indicator: Define each of the productive resources (natural, human, capital) and explain why they are necessary for the production of goods and services. (Geography)
      • E.1.2. Indicator: Explain how consumers and producers confront the condition of scarcity by making choices which involve opportunity costs and tradeoffs.
      • E.1.3. Indicator: Explain the important role of the entrepreneur in taking the risk to combine productive resources to produce goods and services.
      • E.1.4. Indicator: Describe how people respond predictably to positive and negative incentives.
      • E.1.5. Indicator: Explain that voluntary exchange occurs when all participating parties expect to gain.
      • E.1.6 . Indicator: Compare and contrast how the various economic systems (traditional, market, command, mixed) answer the questions What to produce? How to produce it? For whom to produce?
      • E.1.7. Indicator: Describe how clearly defined and enforced property rights are essential to a market economy. (Government)
      • E.1.8. Indicator: Use a production possibilities curve to explain the concepts of choice, scarcity, opportunity cost, tradeoffs, unemployment, productivity and growth.
      • E.1.9. Indicator: Diagram and explain a Circular Flow Model of a market economy, showing households and businesses as decision makers, resource and money flows, and the three basic markets - product, productive resources and financial markets.
    • E.2. Proficiency Statement: Supply and Demand Students will understand the role that supply and demand, prices, and profits play in determining production and distribution in a market economy.
      • E.2.1. Indicator: Define supply and demand.
      • E.2.2. Indicator: Identify factors that cause changes in market supply and demand.
      • E.2.3. Indicator: Describe the role of buyers and sellers in determining the equilibrium price.
      • E.2.4. Indicator: Describe how prices send signals to buyers and sellers.
      • E.2.5. Indicator: Recognize that consumers ultimately determine what is produced in a market economy (consumer sovereignty).
      • E.2.6. Indicator: Demonstrate how supply and demand determine equilibrium price and quantity in the product, resource and financial markets.
      • E.2.7. Indicator: Demonstrate how changes in supply and demand influence equilibrium price and quantity in the product, resource, and financial markets.
      • E.2.8. Indicator: Describe how the earnings of workers are determined by the market value of the product produced and workers' productivity.
      • E.2.9. Indicator: Demonstrate how government wage and price controls, such as rent controls and minimum wage laws, create shortages and surpluses. (Government)
      • E.2.10. Indicator: Use concepts of price elasticity of demand and supply to explain and predict changes in quantity as price changes.
      • E.2.11. Indicator: Illustrate how investment in factories; machinery; new technology; and the health, education and training of people increases productivity and raises future standards of living. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
    • E.3. Proficiency Statement: Market Structures Students will understand the organization and role of business firms and analyze the various types of market structures in the United States economy.
      • E.3.1. Indicator: Compare and contrast the following forms of business organization sole proprietorship, partnership and corporation.
      • E.3.2. Indicator: Identify the three basic ways that firms finance operations (retained earnings, stock issues and borrowing) and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each.
      • E.3.3. Indicator: Recognize that economic institutions such as labor unions, nonprofit organizations, and cooperatives evolve in market economies to help members and clients accomplish their goals. (Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • E.3.4. Indicator: Identify the basic characteristics of the four market structures monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition and pure competition.
      • E.3.5. Indicator: Explain how competition among many sellers lowers costs and prices.
      • E.3.6. Indicator: Demonstrate how firms determine price and output through marginal analysis.
      • E.3.7. Indicator: Explain ways that firms engage in price and non-price competition.
      • E.3.8. Indicator: Identify laws and regulations adopted in the United States to promote competition among firms. (Government)
      • E.3.9. Indicator: Explain the function of profit in a market economy as an incentive for entrepreneurs to accept the risks of business failure.
      • E.3.10. Indicator: Describe the benefits of natural monopolies (economies of scale) and the purposes of government regulation of these monopolies, such as utilities. (Government)
      • E.3.11. Indicator: Explain how cartels affect product price and output.
    • E.4. Proficiency Statement: The Role of Government Students will understand that typical microeconomic roles of government in a market or mixed economy are the provision of public goods and services, redistribution of income, protection of property rights, and resolution of market failures.
      • E.4.1. Indicator: Explain the basic functions of government in a market economy. (Government)
      • E.4.2. Indicator: Explain how markets produce too few public goods and how the government determines the amount to produce through looking at benefits and costs.
      • E.4.3. Indicator: Describe how the government taxing harmful spillovers and subsidizing helpful spillovers helps to resolve the inefficiency they cause.
      • E.4.4. Indicator: Describe major revenue and expenditure categories and their respective proportions of local, state and federal budgets. (Government)
      • E.4.5. Indicator: Explore the ways that tax revenue is used in the community. (Government)
      • E.4.6. Indicator: Identify taxes paid by students. (Government)
      • E.4.7. Indicator: Define progressive, proportional and regressive taxation. (Government)
    • E.4.8. Proficiency Statement: Determine whether different types of taxes (including income, sales and social security) are progressive, proportional or regressive. (Government)
      • E.4.9. Indicator: Describe how costs of government policies may exceed benefits, because social or political goals other than economic efficiency are being pursued. (Government)
      • E.4.10. Indicator: Use an economic decision-making model to analyze a public policy issue. (Government)
    • E.5. Proficiency Statement: National Economic Performance Students will understand the means by which economic performance is measured.
      • E.5.1. Indicator: Define aggregate supply and demand, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), economic growth, unemployment, and inflation.
      • E.5.2. Indicator: Explain how GDP, economic growth, unemployment and inflation are measured.
      • E.5.3. Indicator: Explain the limitations of using GDP to measure economic welfare.
      • E.5.4. Indicator: Explain the four phases of the business cycle (contraction, trough, expansion and peak).
      • E.5.5. Indicator: Analyze the impact of events in United States history, such as wars and technological developments, on business cycles. (History)
      • E.5.6. Indicator: Identify the different causes of inflation and explain who gains and loses because of inflation.
      • E.5.7. Indicator: Analyze the impact of inflation on students' economic decisions.
      • E.5.8. Indicator: Illustrate and explain cost-push and demand-pull inflation.
      • E.5.9. Indicator: Recognize that a country's overall level of income, employment and prices are determined by the individual spending and production decisions of households, firms and government. (Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • E.5.10. Indicator: Illustrate and explain how the relationship between aggregate supply and aggregate demand is an important determinant of the levels of unemployment and inflation in an economy.
      • E.5.11. Indicator: Compare and contrast solutions for reducing unemployment. (Government)
    • E.6. Proficiency Statement: Money and the Role of Financial Institutions Students will understand the role of money and financial institutions in a market economy.
      • E.6.1. Indicator: Explain the basic functions of money.
      • E.6.2. Indicator: Identify the composition of the money supply of the United States.
      • E.6.3. Indicator: Explain the role of banks and other financial institutions in the economy of the United States.
      • E.6.4. Indicator: Explain how interest rates act as an incentive for savers and borrowers.
      • E.6.5. Indicator: Describe the organization and functions of the Federal Reserve System.
      • E.6.6. Indicator: Compare and contrast credit, savings and investment services available to the consumer from financial institutions.
      • E.6.7. Indicator: Demonstrate how banks create money through the principle of fractional reserve banking.
      • E.6.8. Indicator: Research and monitor financial investments, such as stocks, bonds and mutual funds.
      • E.6.9. Indicator: Analyze the difference in borrowing costs using various rates of interest when purchasing a major item, such as a car or house.
      • E.6.10. Indicator: Formulate a savings or financial investment plan for a future goal.
    • E.7. Proficiency Statement: Economic Stabilization Students will understand the macroeconomic role of the government in developing and implementing economic stabilization policies and how these policies impact the economy.
      • E.7.1. Indicator: Define and explain fiscal and monetary policy. (Government)
      • E.7.2. Indicator: Define the tools of fiscal and monetary policy. (Government)
      • E.7.3. Indicator: Describe the negative impacts of unemployment and unexpected inflation on an economy and how individuals and organizations try to protect themselves. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • E.7.4. Indicator: Explain how monetary policy affects the level of inflation in the economy.
      • E.7.5. Indicator: Analyze how the government uses taxing and spending decisions (fiscal policy) to promote price stability, full employment and economic growth. (Government)
      • E.7.6. Indicator: Analyze how the Federal Reserve uses monetary tools to promote price stability, full employment and economic growth. (Government)
      • E.7.7. Indicator: Predict possible future effects of the national debt on the individual and the economy. (Government)
      • E.7.8. Indicator: Predict how changes in federal spending and taxation would affect budget deficits and surpluses and the national debt. (Government)
      • E.7.9. Indicator: Explain how a change in monetary or fiscal policy can impact a student's purchasing decision.
    • E.8. Proficiency Statement: Trade Students will understand why individuals, businesses and governments trade goods and services and how trade affects the economies of the world.
      • E.8.1. Indicator: Explain the benefits of trade among individuals, regions and countries. (Geography; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • E.8.2. Indicator: Define and distinguish between absolute and comparative advantage.
      • E.8.3. Indicator: Define trade barriers, such as quotas and tariffs. (Government)
      • E.8.4. Indicator: Explain why countries erect barriers to trade. (Government)
      • E.8.5. Indicator: Explain the difference between balance of trade and balance of payments.
      • E.8.6. Indicator: Compare and contrast labor productivity trends in the United States and other developed countries.
      • E.8.7. Indicator: Explain how most trade occurs because of a comparative advantage in the production of a particular good or service.
      • E.8.8. Indicator: Explain how changes in exchange rates impact the purchasing power of people in the United States and other countries. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • E.8.9. Indicator: Evaluate the arguments for and against free trade.
      • E.8.10. Indicator: Identify skills that individuals need to be successful in the global economy.
  • IN.GHW. Standard: Geography and History of the World
    • GHW.1. Proficiency Statement: Culture Hearths Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with the origin and development of culture hearths in various regions of the world.
      • GHW.1.1. Indicator: Use maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations to identify and describe the location, distribution and main events in the development of culture hearths in Asia, Mesoamerica and North Africa. (Origins, Spatial Distribution, Human Environment Interactions, Human Livelihoods)
      • GHW.1.2. Indicator: Ask and answer geographic and historical questions about the locations and growth of culture hearths. Assess why some of these culture hearths have endured to this day, while others have declined or disappeared. (National Character, Change over Time, Physical Systems, Spatial Distribution)
      • GHW.1.3. Indicator: Analyze agricultural hearths and exchanges of crops among regions. Evaluate the impact of agriculture on the subsequent development of culture hearths in various regions of the world. (Spatial Interaction, Physical Systems, Diffusion, Human Environment Interactions)
      • GHW.1.4. Indicator: Identify and describe the factors that explain how the local and regional human and physical environments of selected culture hearths were modified over time in terms of such features as urban development and agricultural activities. (Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Variation, Change over Time, Cultural Landscape)
    • GHW.2. Proficiency Statement: World Religions Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with the origins, spread and impact of major world religions in different regions of the world.
      • GHW.2.1. Indicator: Map the spread over time of world religions from their points of origin and identify those that exhibit a high degree of local and/or international concentration. (Origins, Change over Time, Diffusion, Spatial Organization, Spatial Distribution)
      • GHW.2.2. Indicator: Differentiate among selected countries in terms of how their identities, cultural and physical environments, and functions and forms of government are affected by world religions. (Spatial Interaction, Spatial Variation, Change over Time, Cultural Landscape, National Character, Physical Systems)
      • GHW.2.3. Indicator: Compare and contrast different religions in terms of perspectives on the environment and attitudes toward resource use, both today and in the past. (Human Environment Interactions, Change over Time, Physical Systems)
      • GHW.2.4. Indicator: Analyze and assess the rise of fundamentalist movements in the world's major religions during contemporary times (1980-present) and describe the relationships between religious fundamentalism and the secularism and modernism associated with the Western tradition. (National Character, Change over Time, Sense of Place, Cultural Landscapes)
    • GHW.3. Proficiency Statement: Population Characteristics, Distribution and Migration Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with population characteristics, distribution and migration in the world and the causes and consequences associated with them.
      • GHW.3.1. Indicator: Map the distribution of the world's human population for different time periods. Analyze changes in population characteristics and population density in specific regions. (Spatial Variation, Change over Time, Spatial Distribution, Human Environment Interactions)
      • GHW.3.2. Indicator: Identify and describe the push-pull factors that resulted in the migration of human population over time and detect changes in these factors. (Origins, Change over Time, Spatial Interaction)
      • GHW.3.3. Indicator: Analyze the changes in population characteristics and physical and human environments that resulted from the migration of peoples within, between, and among world regions. (Change over Time, Diffusion, Spatial Interaction, Cultural Landscape, Sense of Place)
      • GHW.3.4. Indicator: Give examples of and evaluate how the physical and human environments in different regions have changed over time due to significant population growth or decline. (Spatial Variation, Change over Time, Cultural Landscape, Sense of Place)
      • GHW.3.5. Indicator: Analyze population trends in the local community and suggest the impact of these trends on the future of the community in relation to issues such as development, employment, health, cultural diversity, schools, political representation and sanitation. Propose strategies for dealing with the issues identified. (Change over Time, Spatial Organization, Human Livelihoods, Cultural Landscape, Sense of Place)
    • GHW.4. Proficiency Statement: Exploration, Conquest, Imperialism and Post-Colonialism Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with the origins, major players and events, and consequences of worldwide exploration, conquest and imperialism.
      • GHW.4.1. Indicator: Explain the causes and conditions of worldwide voyages of exploration, discovery and conquest. Identify the countries involved. Provide examples of how people modified their view of world regions as a consequence of these voyages. (Origins, Change over Time, Sense of Place, Spatial Interaction, Spatial Organization)
      • GHW.4.2. Indicator: Use maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations to show the movement, spread and changes in the worldwide exchange of flora, fauna and pathogens that resulted from transoceanic voyages of exploration and exchanges between peoples in different regions. Assess the consequences of these encounters for the people and environments involved. (Spatial Interaction, Change over Time, Diffusion, Human Environment Interactions)
      • GHW.4.3. Indicator: Identify and compare the main causes players and events of imperialism during different time periods. Examine the global extent of imperialism using a series of political maps. (Change over Time, Spatial Distribution, Spatial Interaction)
      • GHW.4.4. Indicator: Analyze and assess how the physical and human environments (including languages used) of places and regions changed as the result of differing imperialist and colonial policies. (Spatial Interaction, Change over Time, Cultural Landscape, National Character, Physical Systems, Sense of Place, Spatial Variation, Spatial Organization)
      • GHW.4.5 Indicator: Analyze and assess ways that colonialism and imperialism have persisted and continue to evolve in the contemporary world. (Spatial Distribution, Spatial Interaction, Spatial Variation, Human Livelihoods, Sense of Place, Cultural Landscapes)
    • GHW.5. Proficiency Statement: Urban Growth Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with the origin and growth of towns and cities in different regions of the world and with the internal spatial structure of those urban centers.
      • GHW.5.1. Indicator: Ask and answer geographic and historical questions about the origin and growth of towns and cities in different regions of the world and in different time periods. Compare and contrast the factors involved in the location and growth of towns and cities for different time periods. (Origins, Change over Time, Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Variation)
      • GHW.5.2. Indicator: Describe using maps, timelines and/or other graphic presentations, the worldwide trend toward urbanization. Assess the impact of factors such as locational advantages and disadvantages, changing transportation technologies, population growth, changing agricultural production, and the demands of industry on this trend. (Diffusion, Change over Time, Human Environment Interactions, Human Livelihoods, Spatial Interaction)
      • GHW.5.3. Indicator: Analyze the changing functions of cities over time. (Change over Time, Human Livelihoods, Sense of Place, Spatial Organization, Spatial Interaction)
      • GHW.5.4. Indicator: Describe how the internal structure of cities is similar and different in various regions of the world. Analyze and explain why these similarities and differences in structure exist. (Spatial Variation)
      • GHW.5.5. Indicator: Analyze and assess the impact of urbanization on the physical and human environments in various parts of the world. (Spatial Variation, Change over Time, Cultural Landscape, Human Environment Interactions, Sense of Place, Physical Systems)
      • GHW.6.1. Indicator: Distinguish between violent and non-violent revolution. Describe the causes and events of political revolutions in two distinct regions of the world and use maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations to document the spread of political ideas that resulted from those events to other regions of the world. (Origins, Change over Time, Spatial Variation, Diffusion)
      • GHW.6.2. Indicator: Prepare maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations showing the origin and spread of specific innovations. Assess the impact of these innovations on the human and physical environments of the regions to which they spread. (Origin, Change over Time, Diffusion, Spatial Interaction, Cultural Landscape, Sense of Place)
      • GHW.6.3. Indicator: Map the spread of innovative art forms and scientific thought from their origins to other world regions. Analyze how the spread of these ideas influenced developments in art and science for different places and regions of the world. (Diffusion, Change over Time, Spatial Interaction)
      • GHW.6.4. Indicator: Analyze how transportation and communication changes have led to both cultural convergence and divergence in the world. (Diffusion, Change over Time, Spatial Interaction)
      • GHW.6.5. Indicator: Analyze and assess the impact of the four major agricultural revolutions on the world's human and physical environments. (Human Environment Interactions, Human Livelihoods, Cultural Hearths, Spatial Organization, Change over Time)
      • GHW.6.6. Indicator: Compare and contrast the impact of the Industrial Revolution on developed countries with the economic processes acting upon less developed countries in the contemporary world. (Human Livelihoods, National Character, Origin, Diffusion, Change over Time, Human Environment Interactions)
    • GHW.7. Proficiency Statement: Conflict and Cooperation Students will explore the physical and human geographic factors affecting the origins and the local, regional and supranational consequences of conflict and cooperation between and among groups of people.
      • GHW.7.1. Indicator: Recognize that conflict and cooperation among groups of people, occur for a variety of reasons including nationalist, racial, ethnic, religious, economic and resource concerns that generally involve agreements and disagreements related to territory on Earth's surface. (Spatial Interaction, Spatial Variation, National Character, Human Environment Interactions, Sense of Place)
      • GHW.7.2. Indicator: Analyze the physical and human factors involved in conflicts and violence related to nationalist, racial, ethnic, religious, economic, and/or resource issues in various parts of the world, over time. Assess the human and physical environmental consequences of the conflicts identified for study. Propose solutions to conflicts that are still ongoing. (Change over Time, Spatial Interaction, Human Environment Interactions, Sense of Place)
      • GHW.7.3. Indicator: Analyze and explain why some countries achieved independence peacefully through legal means and others achieved independence as a consequence of armed struggles or wars. (Spatial Organization, Change over Time, Spatial Interaction)
      • GHW.7.4 Indicator: Prepare maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations to trace the development and geographic extent of a variety of regional and global cooperative organizations for different time periods. Describe why each was established. Assess their success or lack of success, consequences for citizens, and the role of particular countries in achieving the goals the organizations were established to accomplish. (Origins, Spatial Interaction, Change over Time, Spatial Organization, Spatial Distribution)
    • GHW.8. Proficiency Statement: Trade and Commerce Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors that encourage or impede economic interdependence between and/or among countries and the local, regional and global consequences of those exchanges.
      • GHW.8.1. Indicator: Use maps to show the location and distribution of Earth's resources. Analyze how this distribution affects trade between and among countries and regions. (Spatial Interaction, Spatial Distribution, Physical Systems, Human Environment Interactions)
      • GHW.8.2. Indicator: Prepare graphic representations, such as maps, tables and timelines, to describe the global movement of goods and services between and among countries and world regions over time. Analyze and assess the patterns and networks of economic interdependence or lack of interdependence that result. (Diffusion, Change over Time, Spatial Interaction, Spatial Organization, Human Livelihoods)
      • GHW.8.3. Indicator: Identify and describe how the physical and human environments have been altered in selected countries due to trade, commerce and industrialization. Propose strategies for controlling the impact of these forces on the environments affected. (Cultural Landscape, Change over Time, Physical Systems, Human Environment Interactions, Human Livelihoods)
      • GHW.8.4. Indicator: Analyze the impact of changing global patterns of trade and commerce on the local community. Predict the impact of these patterns in the future. (Spatial Interaction, Change over Time, Human Livelihoods)
    • GHW.9. Proficiency Statement: Human and Environmental Interactions Resources, Hazards and Health: Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with examples of how humans interact with the environment, such as deforestation, natural hazards and the spread of diseases, and the regional and global consequences of these interactions.
      • GHW.9.1. Indicator: Use maps to identify regions in the world where particular natural disasters occur frequently. Analyze how the physical and human environments in these regions have been modified over time in response to environmental threats. Give examples of how international efforts bring aid to these regions and assess the success of these efforts. (Human Environment Interactions, Origins, Change over Time, Physical Systems, Cultural Landscape, Spatial Interaction, Spatial Organization)
      • GHW.9.2. Indicator: Identify regional resource issues that may impede sustainability, economic expansion and/or diversification. Assess the impact of these issues on the physical and human environments of specific regions. Propose strategies for dealing with regional resources issues. (Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Distribution, Spatial Interaction, Change over Time, Spatial Organization, Physical Systems, Spatial Variation, Human Livelihoods)
      • GHW.9.3. Indicator: Identify and describe ways in which humans have used technology to modify the physical environment in order to settle areas in different world regions. Evaluate the impact of these technologies on the physical and human environments affected. (Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Interaction, Change over Time, Physical Systems)
      • GHW.9.4. Indicator: Distinguish and assess the human and physical factors associated with the spread of selected epidemics and/or pandemics over time and describe the impact of this diffusion on countries and regions. Propose strategies for limiting the spread of diseases. (Change over Time, Diffusion)
    • GHW.10. Proficiency Statement: States, Nations and Nation-States Students will analyze and evaluate the physical and human geographic factors that contribute to the formation of states (countries) and the forces that function to either, unite and bind a country together or to divide a country.
      • GHW.10.1. Indicator: Differentiate between a state (country) and a nation, specifically focusing on the concepts of territorial control and self-determination of internal and foreign affairs. Analyze the relationship between nations and the states in which they lie. (National Character, Cultural Landscapes, Sense of Place)
      • GHW.10.2. Indicator: Analyze the formation of states (countries) in selected regions and identify and appraise the contribution of factors, such as nationalism, in their formation. (Change over Time, Physical Systems, Origins, National Character)
      • GHW.10.3. Indicator: Evaluate and predict the successes and failures of democratic reform movements in challenging authoritarian or despotic regimes in different countries. (Change over Time, Diffusion, Spatial Variation)
      • GHW.10.4. Indicator: Investigate and assess the impact of imperialistic policies on the formation of new countries in various regions of the world. (Change over Time, Spatial Organization)
      • GHW.10.5. Indicator: Use a variety of sources, such as atlases, written materials and statistical source materials, to identify countries of the world that are true nation-states. Draw conclusions about why certain regions of the world contain more nation-states than others. (Spatial Distribution, Spatial Variation, National Character)
      • GHW.10.6. Indicator: Analyze the human and physical geographic forces that either bind and unite (centripetal forces) or divide (centrifugal forces) a country or countries. Predict the impact of these forces on the future of these countries. Propose strategies that countries can use to overcome the impact of centrifugal forces. (Change over Time, Spatial Distribution, Spatial Variation, National Character)
    • GHW.11. Proficiency Statement: Sports, Recreation and Tourism Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with sports, recreation and tourism along with the local and global consequences of these activities.
      • GHW.11.1. Indicator: Use graphic representations, such as maps and timelines, to describe the spread of specific sports and/or sporting events from their geographic origins. Analyze the spatial patterns that emerge. (Origins, Change over Time, Diffusion)
      • GHW.11.2. Indicator: Analyze the ways in which people's changing views of particular places and regions as recreation and/or tourist destinations reflect cultural changes. (Change over Time, Spatial Interaction, Cultural Landscape.)
      • GHW.11.3. Indicator: Identify and assess the impact of sports and recreation on the human and physical environments in selected countries. (Change over Time, Cultural Landscape, National Character)
      • GHW.11.4. Indicator: Analyze the changing patterns of space devoted to sports and recreation in the local community and region. Predict the impact of these patterns in the future. Propose strategies for dealing with the issues identified. (Spatial Interaction, Spatial Organization, Change over Time)
      • GHW.11.5. Indicator: Analyze the impact of tourism on the physical and human environments of selected world regions. Predict the environmental impact of a continued growth in tourism in these regions. (Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Interaction, Change over Time, Spatial Variation, Spatial Organization, Physical Systems, Cultural Landscape, Human Livelihoods)
      • GHW.11.6. Indicator: Use geographical and historical knowledge and skills to analyze problems related to tourism and to propose solutions related to these problems. (Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Interaction, Change over Time, Cultural Landscape, Human Livelihoods, Sense of Place)
    • GHW.12. Proficiency Statement: Global Change Students will examine the human causes of change to the environment on a global scale along with the impact of these changes on the lives of humans.
      • GHW.12.1. Indicator: Analyze global climate change (sometimes called ''global warming'') and assess the validity of this idea, the variable climate changes it forecasts for different parts of Earth, and the implications of these changes for humans (political, economic, and health and welfare). (Physical Systems, Human Environment Interactions, Change over Time, Spatial Distribution, Spatial Interaction, Spatial Variability)
      • GHW.12.2. Indicator: Explain the concepts of linear and exponential growth. Apply these concepts to geographical themes and analyze the consequences of various human responses to these trends. (Change over Time, Human Environment Interactions, Cultural Landscapes, Physical Systems)
  • IN.P. Standard: Psychology
    • P.1. Proficiency Statement: The Scientific Method Students will understand the development of psychology as an empirical science by describing the scientific method, explaining research strategies and identifying ethical issues.
      • P.1.1. Indicator: List and explain the reasons for studying the methodology of psychology.
      • P.1.2. Indicator: Differentiate between descriptive and experimental research methods.
      • P.1.3. Indicator: List and describe key concepts in descriptive and experimental research.
      • P.1.4. Indicator: Explain the relationship among independent and dependent variables and experimental and control groups.
      • P.1.5. Indicator: Distinguish between scientific and nonscientific research.
      • P.1.6. Indicator: List and describe the key concepts, and follow the ethical guidelines created and supported by the American Psychological Association regarding the use of human and animal subjects.
      • P.1.7. Indicator: Identify ethical issues in psychological research.
      • P.1.8. Indicator: Apply the principles of research design to an appropriate experiment.
      • P.1.9. Indicator: Describe and compare quantitative and qualitative research strategies.
      • P.1.10. Indicator: Create a testable hypothesis and design and carry out appropriate research.
      • P.1.11. Indicator: Discuss the problems of attributing cause and effect to the outcomes of descriptive research.
    • P.2. Proficiency Statement: Development Students will explain the process of how humans grow, learn and adapt to their environment.
      • P.2.1. Indicator: Explain the role of prenatal, perinatal and post-natal development in human behavior.
      • P.2.2. Indicator: Discuss aspects of life span development (infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, later years, dying and death).
      • P.2.3. Indicator: Compare the different ways in which people develop, including physical, social, moral, cognitive, emotional, and language development.
      • P.2.4. Indicator: Describe the theories of Piaget, Erikson and Kohlberg regarding development.
      • P.2.5. Indicator: Compare children's thinking at different stages of cognitive development.
      • P.2.6. Indicator: Identify and compare the level of moral reasoning from Kohlberg's stages of moral development.
      • P.2.7. Indicator: Design and conduct experiments related to cognitive, emotional, motor, moral and language development
    • P.3. Proficiency Statement: Cognition Students will understand how organisms adapt to their environment through learning, information processing and memory.
      • P.3.1. Indicator: Explain learning including operant, classical, associational, and social learning.
      • P.3.2. Indicator: Differentiate between learning, reflexes and fixed-action patterns.
      • P.3.3. Indicator: Describe the characteristics and operation of short-term and long-term memory.
      • P.3.4. Indicator: Identify factor's that interfere with memory.
      • P.3.5. Indicator: Describe mnemonic techniques for improving memory.
      • P.3.6. Indicator: Identify the brain structures related to memory.
      • P.3.7. Indicator: Explain cognition from both developmental and informational processing perspectives.
      • P.3.8. Indicator: Examine the roles of reinforcement and punishment as ways of understanding and modifying behavior.
      • P.3.9. Indicator: Explain the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning and associational learning to daily life.
      • P.3.10. Indicator: Create and carry out a plan for changing one's own behavior.
      • P.3.11. Indicator: Provide example's of learning from daily life.
      • P.3.12. Indicator: Apply mnemonic's techniques to learning situations.
    • P.4. Proficiency Statement: Personality, Assessment and Mental Health Students will recognize that personality is the distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterize an individual. They will also identify the different types and functions of assessment instruments; understand the factors that contribute to mental health, stress and mental illness; and identify approaches for treatment of mental health problems.
      • P.4.1. Indicator: Identify the factors that may influence the formation of personality.
      • P.4.2. Indicator: Identify and describe the characteristics of the major personality theories.
      • P.4.3. Indicator: Distinguish between objective and projective techniques of personality assessment.
      • P.4.4. Indicator: Describe tests used in personality assessment.
      • P.4.5. Indicator: Distinguish between stress and distress.
      • P.4.6. Indicator: Identify environmental factors that lead to stress.
      • P.4.7. Indicator: Describe the common characteristics of abnormal behavior.
      • P.4.8. Indicator: Explain how culture influences the definition of abnormal behavior.
      • P.4.9. Indicator: Identify and describe the theories of abnormality.
      • P.4.10. Indicator: Discuss major categories of abnormal behavior.
      • P.4.11. Indicator: Describe availability and appropriateness of various modes of treatment for people with psychological disorders.
      • P.4.12. Indicator: Describe characteristic's of effective treatment and prevention.
      • P.4.13. Indicator: Explain the relationship between mental health categories and the law.
      • P.4.14. Indicator: Evaluate the influence of variables, such as culture, family and genetics, on personality development.
      • P.4.15. Indicator: Explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on personality development.
      • P.4.16. Indicator: Compare and contrast the validity and reliability of objective and projective assessment techniques.
      • P.4.17. Indicator: Develop a strategy to promote support for individuals with specific mental disorders.
      • P.4.18. Indicator: Locate sources of mental health care providers.
      • P.4.19. Indicator: Explain how one's outlook (positive or negative) can influence mental health.
      • P.4.20. Indicator: Develop a plan for raising a child with a healthy personality.
      • P.4.21. Indicator: Explain anti-social behavior using major personality theories.
    • P.5. Proficiency Statement: Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Behavior Students will understand the socio-cultural dimensions of behavior including topics such as conformity, obedience, perception, attitudes and the influence of the group on the individual.
      • P.5.1. Indicator: Understand how cultural socialization determines social schema development.
      • P.5.2. Indicator: Describe the components of culture, such as symbols, language, norms and values (Geography)
      • P.5.3. Indicator: Explain how perceptions and attitudes develop.
      • P.5.4. Indicator: Describe factors that lead to conformity, obedience and nonconformity.
      • P.5.5. Indicator: Discuss the role of altruism in society.
      • P.5.6. Indicator: Describe circumstances under which conformity and obedience are likely to occur.
      • P.5.7. Indicator: Explain how attributions affect our explanations of behavior.
      • P.5.8. Indicator: List and assess some methods used to change attitudes.
      • P.5.9. Indicator: Explain how economic, social and cultural factors affect behavior. (Economics, Geography)
      • P.5.10. Indicator: Understand how social structure can affect inter-group relations.
      • P.5.11. Indicator: Identify differences between internal and external attributions.
      • P.5.12. Indicator: Discuss conflict and the processes involved in conflict resolution.
      • P.5.13. Indicator: Explain how bias and discrimination influence behavior.
      • P.5.14. Indicator: Provide positive and negative outcomes of group polarization.
      • P.5.15. Indicator: Compare the factors that lead to conformity and nonconformity.
      • P.5.16. Indicator: Describe how a social group can influence the behavior of an individual or another group.
      • P.5.17. Indicator: Explore the nature of bias and discrimination.
      • P.5.18. Indicator: Explain the role of expectations and stereotypes as they relate to attitude and behavior.
      • P.5.19. Indicator: Give example's of the bystander effect.
      • P.5.20. Indicator: Compare the effects of cooperation and competition on individuals and groups.
      • P.5.21. Indicator: Identify and explain sources of attitude formation.
    • P.6. Proficiency Statement: Biological Bases of Behavior Students will investigate the structure, biochemistry and circuitry of the brain and the nervous system to understand their roles in affecting behavior, including the ability to distinguish between sensation and perception.
      • P.6.1. Indicator: List and describe the structure and function of the major regions of the brain.
      • P.6.2. Indicator: Identify the role of the corpus callosum.
      • P.6.3. Indicator: Describe the structure and function of the neuron in relation to how the brain works.
      • P.6.4. Indicator: Identify the major divisions and subdivisions of the nervous system.
      • P.6.5. Indicator: List the methods for studying the brain.
      • P.6.6. Indicator: Understand the structure and function of the endocrine system.
      • P.6.7. Indicator: Explain how heredity interacts with the environment to influence behavior.
      • P.6.8. Indicator: Distinguish between conscious and unconscious perception.
      • P.6.9. Indicator: List and describe the location and function of the major brain regions.
      • P.6.10. Indicator: Describe the relationship among DNA, genes and chromosomes.
      • P.6.11. Indicator: Compare and contrast the influence of the left and right hemispheres on the function of the brain.
      • P.6.12. Indicator: Explain sensory adaptation, sensory deprivation and the importance of selective attention.
      • P.6.13. Indicator: List and explain the psychological influences and experiences on perception.
      • P.6.14. Indicator: Compare the effects of certain drugs or toxins with the effects of neurotransmitters in relation to synaptic transmission.
      • P.6.15. Indicator: Identify how vision, motor, language and other functions are regulated by each hemisphere.
      • P.6.16. Indicator: Give example's of how hormones are linked to behavior.
      • P.6.17. Indicator: Give examples of how the environment selects traits and behaviors that increase the survival rate of organisms.
      • P.6.18. Indicator: Discuss the possible effects of heredity and environment on behavior.
      • P.6.19. Indicator: Explain the function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on heart rate or other physiological responses in an emotional situation.
  • IN.S. Standard: Sociology
    • S.1. Proficiency Statement: Foundations of Sociology as a Social Science Students will describe the development of sociology as a social science, by identifying methods and strategies of research and by examining the contributions of sociology to the understanding of social issues.
      • S.1.1. Indicator: Discuss the development of the field of sociology as a social science. (History)
      • S.1.2. Indicator: Identify early leading theorists within social science. (History)
      • S.1.3. Indicator: Compare sociology with other social science disciplines. (Economics, Government, Geography, History)
      • S.1.4. Indicator: Examine changing points of view of social issues, such as poverty, crime and discrimination. (History)
      • S.1.5. Indicator: Evaluate various types of sociologic research methods. (History)
      • S.1.6. Indicator: Distinguish fact from opinion in data sources to analyze various points of view about a social issue.
      • S.1.7. Indicator: Determine cause-and-effect relationship issues among events as they relate to sociology.
      • S.1.8. Indicator: Identify, evaluate and use appropriate reference materials and technology to interpret information about cultural life in the United States and other world cultures, both in the past and today. (Geography, History)
      • S.1.9. Indicator: Prepare original written and oral reports and presentations on specific events, people or historical eras as related to sociological research. (History)
      • S.1.10. Indicator: Develop a working definition of sociology that has personal application.
      • S.1.11. Indicator: Choose a social issue and conduct research using the scientific method of inquiry, including developing a hypothesis, conducting research, interpreting data and drawing conclusions about the issue.
    • S.2. Proficiency Statement: Culture Students will examine the influence of culture on the individual and the way cultural transmission is accomplished. They will study the way culture defines how people in a society behave in relation to groups and to physical objects. They will also learn that human behavior is learned within the society. Through the culture, individuals learn the relationships, structures, patterns and processes to be members of the society.
      • S.2.1. Indicator: Define the key components of a culture, such as knowledge, language and communication, customs, values, norms, and physical objects. (Geography, History)
      • S.2.2. Indicator: Explain the differences between a culture and a society.
      • S.2.3. Indicator: Recognize the influences of genetic inheritance and culture on human behavior.
      • S.2.4. Indicator: Give examples of subcultures and describe what makes them unique.
      • S.2.5. Indicator: Compare social norms among various subcultures.
      • S.2.6. Indicator: Identify the factors that promote cultural diversity within the United States. (Economics, Government, Geography, History)
      • S.2.7. Indicator: Explain how various practices of the culture create differences within group behavior.
      • S.2.8. Indicator: Compare and contrast different types of societies, such as hunting and gathering, agrarian, industrial, and post-industrial. (Economics, History)
      • S.2.9. Indicator: Prepare original written and oral reports and presentations on specific events, people or historical eras as related to sociological research. (History)
      • S.2.10. Indicator: Work independently and cooperatively in class and the school and provide leadership in age-appropriate activities.
      • S.2.11. Indicator: Identify both rights and responsibilities the individual has to the group. (Government)
      • S.2.12. Indicator: Demonstrate democratic approaches to managing disagreements and resolving conflicts. (Government)
      • S.2.13. Indicator: Compare and contrast ideas about citizenship and cultural participation from the past with those of the present community. (Government, History)
    • S.3. Proficiency Statement: Social Status Students will identify how social status influences individual and group behaviors and how that status relates to the position a person occupies within a social group.
      • S.3.1. Indicator: Describe how social status affects social order. (Economics, History)
      • S.3.2. Indicator: Explain how roles and role expectations can lead to role conflict. (History)
      • S.3.3. Indicator: Examine and analyze various points of view relating to historical and current events. (History)
      • S.3.4. Indicator: Determine cause-and-effect relationship's among historical events, themes, and concepts in United States and world history as they relate to sociology. (Economics, History)
      • S.3.5. Indicator: Conduct research on the various types of status found in the local community using various types of data gathering.
    • S.4. Proficiency Statement: Social Groups Students will explore the impacts of social groups on individual and group behavior. They will understand that social groups are comprised of people who share some common characteristics, such as common interests, beliefs, behavior, feelings, thoughts and contact with each other.
      • S.4.1. Indicator: Describe how individuals are affected by the different social groups to which they belong.
      • S.4.2. Indicator: Identify major characteristics of social groups familiar to the students.
      • S.4.3. Indicator: Examine the ways that groups function, such as roles, interactions and leadership. (Government)
      • S.4.4. Indicator: Discuss the social norms of at least two groups to which the student belongs.
      • S.4.5. Indicator: Analyze what can occur when the rules of behavior are broken and analyze the possible consequences for unacceptable behavior.
      • S.4.6. Indicator: Identify the various types of norms (folkways, mores, laws and taboos) and explain why these rules of behavior are considered important to society.
      • S.4.7. Indicator: Discuss the concept of deviance and how society discourages deviant behavior using social control.
      • S.4.8. Indicator: Explain how students are members of primary and secondary groups and how those group memberships influence students' behavior.
      • S.4.9. Indicator: Discuss how formal organizations influence behavior of their members. (Government, History)
      • S.4.10. Indicator: Distinguish the degree of assimilation that ethnic, cultural and social groups achieve within the United States culture. (History)
      • S.4.11. Indicator: Discuss how humans interact in a variety of social settings.
      • S.4.12. Indicator: Determine the cultural patterns of behavior within such social groups as rural/urban or rich/poor. (Economics, Geography)
      • S.4.13. Indicator: Investigate and compare the ideas about citizenship and cultural participation of social groups from the past with those of the present community.
    • S.5. Proficiency Statement: Social Institutions Students will identify the effects of social institutions on individual and group behavior. They will understand that social institutions are the social groups in which an individual participates, and that these institutions influence the development of the individual through the socialization process.
      • S.5.1. Indicator: Identify basic social institutions and explain their impact on individuals, groups and organizations within society and how they transmit the values of society.
      • S.5.2. Indicator: Discuss the concept of political power and factors that influence political power. (Government)
      • S.5.3. Indicator: Discuss how societies recognize rites of passage.
      • S.5.4. Indicator: Investigate stereotypes of the various United States subcultures, such as ''American Indian,'' ''American cowboys,'' ''teenagers,'' ''Americans,'' ''gangs'' and ''hippies,'' from a world perspective. (History)
      • S.5.5. Indicator: Define ethnocentrism and explain how it can be beneficial or destructive to a culture.
      • S.5.6. Indicator: Identify the factors that influence change in social norms over time. (History)
      • S.5.7. Indicator: Use various resources to interpret information about cultural life in the United States and other world cultures, both in the past and today. (History)
      • S.5.8. Indicator: Analyze the primary and secondary groups common to different age groups in society.
      • S.5.9. Indicator: Conduct research and analysis on an issue associated with social structure or social institutions.
      • S.5.10. Indicator: Identify both rights and responsibilities the individual has to primary and secondary groups. (Government)
      • S.5.11. Indicator: Demonstrate democratic approaches to managing disagreements and solving conflicts. (Government)
      • S.5.12. Indicator: Explain how roles and role expectations can lead to role conflict.
    • S.6. Proficiency Statement: Social Change Students will examine the changing nature of society. They will explain that social change addresses the disruption of social functions caused by numerous factors and that some changes are minor and others are major.
      • S.6.1. Indicator: Describe how and why societies change over time. (Economics, Geography, History)
      • S.6.2. Indicator: Examine various social influences that can lead to immediate and long-term changes. (Economics, Geography, History)
      • S.6.3. Indicator: Describe how collective behavior can influence and change society.
      • S.6.4. Indicator: Examine how technological innovations and scientific discoveries have influenced major social institutions. (Economics, History)
      • S.6.5. Indicator: Discuss how social interactions and culture could be affected in the future due to innovations in science and technological change. (Economics, History)
      • S.6.6. Indicator: Describe how the role of the mass media has changed over time and project what changes might occur in the future.
      • S.6.7. Indicator: Distinguish major differences between social movements and collective behavior with examples from history and the contemporary world. (History)
      • S.6.8. Indicator: Investigate the consequences to society as a result of changes. (Economics, Government, Geography, History)
      • S.6.9. Indicator: Trace the development of the use of a specific type of technology in the community. (History)
      • S.6.10. Indicator: Propose a plan to improve a social structure, and design the means needed to implement the change. (Economics)
      • S.6.11. Indicator: Cite example's of the use of technology in social research.
      • S.6.12. Indicator: Evaluate a current issue that has resulted from scientific discoveries and/or technological innovations. (Economics, History)
    • S.7. Proficiency Statement: Social Problems Students will analyze a range of social problems in today's world. Social problems result from imbalances within the social system and affect a large number of people in an adverse way.
      • S.7.1. Indicator: Identify characteristic's of a ''social'' problem, as opposed to an ''individual'' problem.
      • S.7.2. Indicator: Describe how social problems have changed over time. (History)
      • S.7.3. Indicator: Explain how patterns of behavior are found with certain social problems.
      • S.7.4. Indicator: Discuss the implications of social problems for society.
      • S.7.5. Indicator: Examine how individual and group responses are often associated with social problems.
      • S.7.6. Indicator: Evaluate possible solutions to resolving social problems and the consequences that might result from those solutions.
      • S.7.7. Indicator: Survey local agencies involved in addressing social problems to determine the extent of the problems in the local community. (Economics, Government)
      • S.7.8. Indicator: Design and carry out school- and community-based projects to address a local aspect of a social problem. (Economics)
    • S.8. Proficiency Statement: Individual and Community Students will examine the role of the individual as a member of the community. They will also explore both individual and collective behavior.
      • S.8.1. Indicator: Describe the traditions, roles and expectations necessary for a community to continue. (History)
      • S.8.2. Indicator: Describe how collective behavior (working in groups) can influence and change society. Use historical and contemporary examples to define collective behavior. (History)
      • S.8.3. Indicator: Discuss theories that attempt to explain collective behavior.
      • S.8.4. Indicator: Define a social issue to be analyzed.
      • S.8.5. Indicator: Examine factor's that could lead to the breakdown and disruption of an existing community. (Economics, Government, Geography, History)
      • S.8.6. Indicator: Discuss the impact of leaders of different social movements. (History)
      • S.8.7. Indicator: Define propaganda and discuss the methods of propaganda used to influence social behavior.
      • S.8.8. Indicator: Discuss both the benefits and social costs of collective behavior in society.
      • S.8.9. Indicator: Determine a cause-and-effect relationship among historical events, themes and concepts in United States and world history as they relate to sociology. (History)
      • S.8.10. Indicator: Identify a community social problem and discuss appropriate actions to address the problem. (Economics)
      • S.8.11. Indicator: Investigate how incorrect communications, such as rumors or gossip, can influence group behavior.
  • IN.USG. Standard: United States Government
    • USG.1. Proficiency Statement: The Nature of Politics and Government Students will identify, define, compare and contrast ideas regarding the nature of government, politics and civic life, and explain how these ideas have influenced contemporary political and legal systems. They will also explain the importance of government, politics and civic engagement in a democratic republic, and demonstrate how citizens participate in civic and political life in their own communities.
      • USG.1.1. Indicator: Define civic life, political life and private life and describe the activities of individuals in each of these spheres. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.1.2. Indicator: Define the terms and explain the relationship between politics, government, and public policy. (Economics)
      • USG.1.3. Indicator: Describe the purposes and functions of government through the interpretation of the Preamble of the United States Constitution. (Economics)
      • USG.1.4. Indicator: Define and contrast types of government including, direct democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, and totalitarianism. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.1.5. Indicator: Compare and contrast characteristics of limited and unlimited governments and provide historical and contemporary examples of each type of government.
      • USG.1.6. Indicator: Compare and contrast unitary, confederal, and federal systems of government.
      • USG.1.7. Indicator: Explain how civil society contributes to the maintenance of limited government in a representative democracy or democratic republic, such as the United States. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.1.8. Indicator: Define and provide examples of constitutionalism, rule of law, limited government and popular sovereignty in the United States Constitution and explain the relationship of these three constitutional principles to the protection of the rights of individuals. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.1.9. Indicator: Explain the importance of a written constitution in establishing and maintaining the principles of rule of law and limited government.
      • USG.1.10. Indicator: Describe the sources of authority from ancient to modern times that provided governmental legitimacy. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.1.11. Indicator: Describe how the United States Constitution establishes majority rule while protecting minority rights and balances the common good with individual liberties. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
    • USG.2. Proficiency Statement: Foundations of Government in the United States Students will identify and define ideas at the core of government and politics in the United States, interpret Founding-Era documents and events associated with the core ideas, and explain how commitment to these foundational ideas constitutes a common American civic identity. They will also analyze issues about the meaning and application of these core ideas to government, politics and civic life, and demonstrate how citizens apply these foundational ideas in civic and political life.
      • USG.2.1. Indicator: Summarize the colonial, revolutionary and Founding-Era experiences and events that led to the writing, ratification and implementation of the United States Constitution (1787) and Bill of Rights (1791). (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.2.2. Indicator: Define and provide examples of foundational ideas of American government, including natural rights philosophy, social contract, popular sovereignty, constitutionalism, representative democracy, political factions, federalism and individual rights, which are embedded in Founding-Era documents.
      • USG.2.3. Indicator: Explain how a common and shared American civic identity is based on commitment to foundational ideas in Founding-Era documents and in core documents of subsequent periods of United States history. (History)
      • USG.2.4. Indicator: Compare and contrast the ideas of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists regarding the respective roles of state and national government on ratification of the United States Constitution (1787-1788). (History)
      • USG.2.5. Indicator: Define and provide historical and contemporary examples of fundamental principles and values of American political and civic life, including liberty, security, the common good, justice, equality, law and order, rights of individuals, and social diversity. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.2.6. Indicator: Explain the importance for communities comprised of diverse individuals and groups to make a common commitment to fundamental principles and values of American democracy. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.2.7. Indicator: Identify and explain historical and contemporary efforts to narrow discrepancies between fundamental principles and values of American democracy and realities of American political and civic life. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
    • USG.3. Proficiency Statement: Purposes, Principles and Institutions of Government in the United States Students will explain how purposes, principles and institutions of government for the American people are established in the United States Constitution and reflected in the Indiana Constitution. They will also describe the structures and functions of American constitutional government at national, state and local levels and practice skills of citizenship in relationship to their constitutional government.
      • USG.3.1. Indicator: Analyze the United States Constitution and explain characteristics of government in the United States, which define it as a federal, presidential, constitutional and representative democracy.
      • USG.3.2. Indicator: Explain the constitutional principles of federalism, separation of powers, the system of checks and balances, representative democracy, and popular sovereignty; provide examples of these principles in the governments of the United States and the state of Indiana.
      • USG.3.3. Indicator: Identify and describe provisions of the United States Constitution and the Indiana Constitution that define and distribute powers and authority of the federal or state government.
      • USG.3.4. Indicator: Explain the relationship between limited government and a market economy. (Economics)
      • USG.3.5. Indicator: Explain the section of Article IV, Section 4, of the United States Constitution which says, ''The United States shall guarantee to every State in the Union a Republican form of government.'' (History)
      • USG.3.6. Indicator: Compare and contrast the enumerated implied and denied powers in the United States Constitution and the Indiana Constitution.
      • USG.3.7. Indicator: Explain the relationships among branches of the United States government and Indiana government, which involve separation and sharing of powers as a means to limited government.
      • USG.3.8. Indicator: Describe the fiscal and monetary policies incorporated by the United States government and Indiana government and evaluate how they affect individuals, groups and businesses. (Economics)
      • USG.3.9. Indicator: Explain how a bill becomes law in the legislative process of the United States.
      • USG.3.10. Indicator: Describe the procedures for amending the United States Constitution and analyze why it is so difficult to amend the Constitution.
      • USG.3.11. Indicator: Analyze the functions of the judicial branch of the United States and Indiana governments with emphasis on the principles of due process, judicial review and an independent judiciary.
      • USG.3.12. Indicator: Analyze the functions of major departments of the executive branch in the United States and in Indiana. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.3.13. Indicator: Explain the electoral process in terms of election laws and election systems on the national, state and local level.
      • USG.3.14. Indicator: Summarize the evolution of political parties and their ideologies in the American governmental system and analyze their functions in elections and government at national, state and local levels of the federal system. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.3.15. Indicator: Explain and evaluate the original purpose and function of the Electoral College and its relevance today.
      • USG.3.16. Indicator: Explain the organization of state and local governments in Indiana and analyze how they affect the lives of citizens. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.3.17. Indicator: Identify special interest groups and explain their impact on the development of state and local public policy. (Economics; History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.3.18. Indicator: Identify and analyze decisions by the United States Supreme Court about the constitutional principles of separation of powers and checks and balances in such landmark cases as Marbury v. Madison (1803), Baker v. Carr (1962), United States v. Nixon (1974), Clinton v. City of New York (1998) and Bush v. Gore (2000). (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.3.19. Indicator: Identify and analyze decisions by the United States Supreme Court about the constitutional principle of federalism in cases such as McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Alden v. Maine (1999) and the denial of certiorari for the Terri Schiavo case (2005). (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.3.20. Indicator: Describe the influence of the media on public opinion and public policy.
    • USG.4. Proficiency Statement: The Relationship of the United States to Other Nations in World Affairs Students will analyze the interactions between the United States and other nations and evaluate the role of the United States in world affairs.
      • USG.4.1. Indicator: Compare and contrast governments throughout the world with the United States government in terms of source of the government's power.
      • USG.4.2. Indicator: Describe how different governments interact in world affairs. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.4.3. Indicator: Identify and describe contemporary examples of conflict among nations. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.4.4. Indicator: Identify the costs and benefits to the United States of participating in international organizations. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.4.5. Indicator: Analyze powers the United States Constitution gives to the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government in the area of foreign affairs. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.4.6. Indicator: Identify and describe strategies available to the United States government to achieve foreign policy objectives. (Economics; Geography; History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.4.7. Indicator: Describe the influence individuals, businesses, labor and other organizations exercise on United States foreign policy. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.4.8. Indicator: Provide examples of non-governmental international organizations and explain their role in international affairs. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.4.9. Indicator: Identify world issues, including political, cultural, demographic, economic and environmental challenges that affect the United States foreign policy in specific regions of the world.
      • USG.4.10. Indicator: Discuss specific foreign policy issues that impact local community and state interests. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
    • USG.5. Proficiency Statement: Roles of Citizens in the United States Students will explain the idea of citizenship in the United States, describe the roles of United States citizens, and identify and explain the rights and responsibilities of United States citizens. They will also examine how citizens can participate responsibly and effectively in the civic and political life of the United States.
      • USG.5.1. Indicator: Define the legal meaning of citizenship in the United States.
      • USG.5.2. Indicator: Describe the requirements for citizenship in the United States and residency in Indiana and deliberate on criteria used for attaining both. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.5.3. Indicator: Analyze the roles of citizens in Indiana and the United States. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.5.4. Indicator: Discuss the individual's legal obligation to obey the law, serve as a juror and pay taxes.
      • USG.5.5. Indicator: Identify and describe the civil and constitutional rights found in the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights and expanded by decisions of the United States Supreme Court. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USG.5.6. Indicator: Identify when it is constitutional for governments to limit the rights of individuals.
      • USG.5.7. Indicator: Explain and give examples of important citizen actions that monitor and influence local, state, and national government as individuals and members of interest groups.
      • USG.5.8. Indicator: Explain how citizens in the United States participate in public elections as voters and supporters of candidates for public office.
      • USG.5.9. Indicator: Describe opportunities available to individuals' to contribute to the well-being of their communities and participate responsibly in the political process at local, state, and national levels of government.
      • USG.5.10. Indicator: Analyze and evaluate decisions about civil rights and liberties of individuals in landmark cases of the United States Supreme Court.
      • USG.5.11. Indicator: Give examples of the role that individual citizens can play in world affairs.
      • USG.5.12. Indicator: Use information from a variety of resources to describe and discuss American political issues such as environmental issues, women's rights and affirmative action.
  • IN.USH. Standard: United States History
    • USH.1. Proficiency Statement: Early National Development 1775 to 1877: Students will review and summarize key ideas, events, and developments from the Founding Era through the Civil War and Reconstruction from 1775 to 1877.
      • USH.1.1. Indicator: Read key documents from the Founding Era and explain major ideas about government, individual rights and the general welfare embedded in these documents. (Government)
      • USH.1.2. Indicator: Explain major themes in the early history of the United States. (Economics, Government)
      • USH.1.3. Indicator: Describe the controversies pertaining to slavery, abolitionism, Dred Scott v. Sanford (1856) and social reform movements. (Government, Economics)
      • USH.1.4. Indicator: Describe causes and lasting effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction as well as the political controversies surrounding this time. (Government, Economics)
    • USH.2. Proficiency Statement: Development of the Industrial United States 1870 to 1900: Students will examine the political, economic, social and cultural development of the United States during the period from 1870 to 1900.
      • USH.2.1. Indicator: Describe economic developments that transformed the United States into a major industrial power and identify the factors necessary for industrialization. (Economics)
      • USH.2.2. Indicator: Identify key ideas, movements and inventions and explain their impact on rural communities and urban communities in the United States. (Economics, Sociology)
      • USH.2.3. Indicator: Identify the contributions of individuals and groups and explain developments associated with industrialization and immigration. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.2.4. Indicator: Describe the growth of unions and the labor movement and identify important labor leaders associated with these movements. (Government, Economics)
      • USH.2.5. Indicator: Compare and contrast government attempts to regulate business and industry. (Government, Economics)
      • USH.2.6. Indicator: Describe the federal government's policy regarding migration of settlers and the removal of Native American Indians to western territories. (Government; Geography; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.2.7. Indicator: Describe and analyze the lasting effect of ''separate but equal'' established by the U.S. Supreme Court in Plessey v. Ferguson (1896). (Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
    • USH.3. Proficiency Statement: Emergence of the Modern United States 1897 to 1920: Students will examine the political, economic, social and cultural development of the United States during the period from 1897 to 1920.
      • USH.3.1. Indicator: Identify the events and people central to the transformation of the United States into a world power. (Government, Geography)
      • USH.3.2. Indicator: Explain how ''The Roosevelt Corollary'' (1904) modified the Monroe Doctrine (1823) justifying a new direction in United States foreign policy. (Government)
      • USH.3.3. Indicator: Compare President Woodrow Wilson's ''Fourteen Points'' address to the views of British leader David Lloyd George and French leader Georges Clemenceau regarding a treaty to end World War I. (Government, Geography)
      • USH.3.4. Indicator: Summarize the Versailles Treaty, the formation and purpose of League of Nations and the interrelationship between the two. (Government)
      • USH.3.5. Indicator: Identify and compare the reforms of Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson.
      • USH.3.6. Indicator: Identify the contributions to American culture made by individuals and groups. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.3.7. Indicator: Explain the impact of immigration, industrialization and urbanization in promoting economic growth. (Economics, Geography)
      • USH.3.8. Indicator: Describe the Progressive movement and its impact on political, economic and social reform. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.3.9. Indicator: Explain the constitutional significance of the following landmark decisions of the United States Supreme Court Northern Securities Company v. United States (1904), Muller v. Oregon (1908), Schenck v. United States (1919) and Abrams v. United States (1919).
    • USH.4. Proficiency Statement: Modern United States Prosperity and Depression 1920s and 1939: Students will examine the political, economic, social and cultural development of the United States during the period from 1920 to 1939.
      • USH.4.1. Indicator: Give examples of support shifting to big business during the postwar period between World War I and the Great Depression. (Government, Economics)
      • USH.4.2. Indicator: Describe the development of popular culture. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.4.3. Indicator: Explain how America reacted to a changing society by examining issues associated with the Red Scare, Prohibition, the Scopes Trial, the changing role of women and African-Americans, the Ku Klux Klan, the Palmer Raids, the National Origins Act, and restrictions on immigration. (Government; Economics; Geography; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.4.4. Indicator: Describe the stock market crash of 1929 and the impact it had on politics, economics and America's standard of living. (Government, Economics)
      • USH.4.5. Indicator: Identify and describe the contributions of political and social reformers during the Great Depression. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.4.6. Indicator: Describe New Deal legislation and its effect on government expansion and compare and contrast their views of New Deal proponents and opponents. (Government, Economics)
      • USH.4.7. Indicator: Describe technological developments during the 1920s and their impact on rural and urban America. (Economics; Geography; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.4.8. Indicator: Describe the cause and effect of American isolationism during the 1930s. (Government, Economics, Geography)
    • USH.5. Proficiency Statement: The United States and World War II 1939 to 1945: Students will examine the causes and course of World War II, the effects of the war on United States society and culture, and the consequences for United States involvement in world affairs.
      • USH.5.1. Indicator: Compare and contrast President Franklin D. Roosevelt's world view with that of Germany's Adolf Hitler. (Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.5.2. Indicator: Identify and describe key events that resulted in the United States entry into World War II. (Government, Geography)
      • USH.5.3. Indicator: Identify and describe key leaders and events during World War II. (Government)
      • USH.5.4. Indicator: Describe Hitler's ''final solution'' policy and identify the Allied responses to the Holocaust. (Government, Geography)
      • USH.5.5. Indicator: Explain the significance of the Supreme Court cases Korematsu v. United States (1944) and Hirabayashi v. United States (1943), dealing with individual rights and national security during World War II. (Government)
      • USH.5.6. Indicator: Identify and describe the impact of World War II on American culture and economic life. (Government; Economics; Geography; Individuals, Society and Culture)
    • USH.6. Proficiency Statement: Postwar United States 1945 to 1960: Students will examine the political, economic, social and cultural development of the United States during the period from 1945 to 1960.
      • USH.6.1. Indicator: Describe the domino theory and its relationship to the principle of containment. Identify key events and individuals as well as their connections to post World War II tensions (Cold War). (Government, Geography)
      • USH.6.2. Indicator: Summarize the early struggle for civil rights and identify events and people associated with this struggle. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.6.3. Indicator: Describe the constitutional significance and lasting effects of the United States Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.6.4. Indicator: Summarize the economic and social changes in American life brought about by converting a wartime economy to a peace-time economy. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
    • USH.7. Proficiency Statement: The United States in Troubled Times 1960 to 1980: Students will examine the political, economic, social and cultural development of the United States during the period from 1960 to 1980.
      • USH.7.1. Indicator: Explain the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s by describing the ideas and actions of federal and state leaders, grassroots movements, and central organizations that were active in the movement. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.7.2. Indicator: Read Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s ''I Have a Dream'' speech (1963) and ''Letter from Birmingham Jail'' (1963) and summarize the main ideas in each. (Government, Economics)
      • USH.7.3. Indicator: Identify and describe federal programs, policies and legal rulings designed to improve the lives of Americans during the 1960s. (Government, Economics)
      • USH.7.4. Indicator: Identify the problems confronting women, immigrants and Native American Indians during this period of economic and social change and describe the solutions to these problems. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.7.5. Indicator: Identify and describe United States foreign policy issues during the 1960s and 1970s. (Government, Geography)
      • USH.7.6. Indicator: Explain and analyze changing relations between the United States and the Soviet Union from 1960 to 1980 as demonstrated by the Cuban Missile Crisis, the crisis in Berlin, the U-2 incident, the space race and the SALT agreements.(Government, Geography)
      • USH.7.7. Indicator: Describe United States' involvement in Vietnam and reactions by Americans to this involvement.
      • USH.7.8. Indicator: Identify causes and the effects of Richard Nixon's decision to resign the Presidency and explain the constitutional significance of the Watergate Scandal and the United States Supreme Court case United States v. Nixon. (Government)
    • USH.8. Proficiency Statement: The Contemporary United States 1980 to the Present: Students will examine the political, economic, social and cultural development of the United States during the period from 1980 to the present.
      • USH.8.1. Indicator: Describe United States domestic issues and identify trends that occur from 1980 to the present.
      • USH.8.2. Indicator: Identify and describe important United States foreign policy issues, the people involved and the impact on the country. (Government, Geography, Economics)
      • USH.8.3. Indicator: Explain the constitutional significance of the following landmark decisions of the United States Supreme Court Westside Community School District v. Mergens (1990), Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union (1997), Mitchell v. Helms (2000) and Bush v. Gore (2000).
      • USH.8.4. Indicator: Describe developing trends in science and technology and explain how they impact the lives of Americans today.
      • USH.8.5. Indicator: Describe social, economic and political issues and how they impact individuals and organizations. (Government; Economics; Geography; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • USH.8.6. Indicator: Analyze the impact of globalization on U.S. economic, political and foreign policy. (Government, Economics, Geography)
    • USH.9. Proficiency Statement: Historical Thinking Students will conduct historical research that incorporates information literacy skills such as forming appropriate research questions; evaluating information by determining its accuracy, relevance and comprehensiveness; interpreting a variety of primary and secondary sources; and presenting their findings with documentation.
      • USH.9.1. Indicator: Identify patterns of historical succession and duration in which historical events have unfolded and apply them to explain continuity and change.
      • USH.9.2. Indicator: Locate and analyze primary sources and secondary sources related to an event or issue of the past.
      • USH.9.3. Indicator: Investigate and interpret multiple causation in historical actions and analyze cause-and-effect relationships.
      • USH.9.4. Indicator: Explain issues and problems of the past by analyzing the interests and viewpoints of those involved.
      • USH.9.5. Indicator: Use technology in the process of conducting historical research and in the presentation of the products of historical research and current events.
      • USH.9.6. Indicator: Formulate and present a position or course of action on an issue by examining the underlying factors contributing to that issue.
  • IN.WG. Standard: World Geography
    • WG.1. Proficiency Statement: The World in Spatial Terms Students will acquire a framework for examining the world in spatial terms. They will use and evaluate maps, globes, atlases and grid-referenced technologies, such as remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), to acquire, evaluate, analyze and report information about people, places and environments on Earth's surface.
      • WG.1.1. Indicator: Explain Earth's grid system and locate places using degrees of latitude and longitude. Use Earth's grid to examine important human issues, such as where particular crops can be grown and what animals can be domesticated in particular areas.
      • WG.1.2. Indicator: Demonstrate that, as an attempt to represent the round Earth on flat paper, all maps distort. Be able to evaluate distortions associated with any given projection.
      • WG.1.3. Indicator: Evaluate the source of particular maps to determine possible biases contained in them.
      • WG.1.4. Indicator: Create and compare mental maps or personal perceptions of places. Explain how experiences and culture influence these perceptions and identify ways in which mental maps influence decisions. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.1.5. Indicator: Use locational technology such as remote sensing, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to establish spatial relationships.
      • WG.1.6. Indicator: Evaluate the applications of geographic tools (locational technologies) and supporting technologies to serve particular purposes.
      • WG.1.7. Indicator: Ask geographic questions and obtain answers from a variety of sources, such as books, atlases and other written materials; statistical source material; fieldwork and interviews; remote sensing; and GIS. Reach conclusions and give oral, written, graphic and cartographic expression to conclusions.
    • WG.2. Proficiency Statement: Places and Regions Students will acquire a framework for thinking geographically about places and regions. They will identify the physical and human characteristics of places and regions. They will understand that people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity, and how culture and experience influence people's perception of places and regions.
      • WG.2.1. Indicator: Name and locate the world's continents, major bodies of water, major mountain ranges, major river systems, all countries and major cities.
      • WG.2.2. Indicator: Give examples of how and why places and regions change or do not change over time.
      • WG.2.3. Indicator: Give examples and analyze ways in which people's changing views of places and regions reflect cultural changes.
      • WG.2.4. Indicator: Explain how the concept of ''region'' is used as a way of categorizing, interpreting and ordering complex information about Earth.
      • WG.2.5. Indicator: Give examples of how people create regions to understand Earth's complexity (Individuals, Society and Culture)
    • WG.3. Proficiency Statement: Physical Systems Students will acquire a framework for thinking geographically about Earth's physical systems. They will explain the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface and the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface.
      • WG.3.1. Indicator: Define Earth's physical systems atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere or hydrosphere. Categorize the elements of the natural environment as belonging to one of the four components.
      • WG.3.2. Indicator: Identify and account for the distribution pattern of the world's climates, taking into account the Earth/Sun relationship, ocean currents, prevailing winds, and latitude and longitude.
      • WG.3.3. Indicator: Describe the world patterns of natural vegetation and biodiversity and their relations to world climate patterns.
      • WG.3.4. Indicator: Explain and give examples of the physical processes that shape Earth's surface that result in existing landforms and identify specific places where these processes occur.
      • WG.3.5. Indicator: Illustrate and graph with precision the occurrence of earthquakes on Earth over a given period of time (at least several months) and draw conclusions concerning regions of tectonic instability.
    • WG.4. Proficiency Statement: Human Systems Students will acquire a framework for thinking geographically about human activities that shape Earth's surface. They will examine the characteristics, distribution and migration of human populations on Earth's surface; investigate the characteristics, distribution and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics; analyze the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface; examine the processes, patterns and functions of human settlement; and consider how the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's surface.
      • WG.4.1. Indicator: Explain Earth's grid system and locate places using degrees of latitude and longitude. Use Earth's grid to examine important human issues, such as where particular crops can be grown and what animals can be domesticated in particular areas.
      • WG.4.2. Indicator: Characteristics, Distribution and Migration of Human Populations Develop maps of human migration and settlement patterns at different times in history and compare them to the present. (Government; History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.3. Indicator: Characteristics, Distribution and Migration of Human Populations Hypothesize about the impact of push factors and pull factors on human migration in selected regions and about changes in these factors over time. (Economics; Government; History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.4. Indicator: Characteristics, Distribution and Migration of Human Populations Evaluate the impact of human migration on physical and human systems. (Economic; Government; Individuals, Society and Culture
      • WG.4.5. Indicator: Characteristics, Distribution and Migration of Human Populations Assess the consequences of population growth or decline in various parts of the United States and determine whether the local community is shrinking or growing.
      • WG.4.6. Indicator: Characteristics, Distribution and Complexity of Cultural Mosaics Map the distribution patterns of the world's major religions and identify cultural features associated with each. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.7. Indicator: Characteristics, Distribution and Complexity of Cultural Mosaics Map the distribution pattern of the world's major languages. Map and explain the concept of a lingua franca in various parts of the world. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.8. Indicator: Characteristics, Distribution and Complexity of Cultural Mosaics Explain how changes in communication and transportation technology contribute to the spread of ideas and to cultural convergence and divergence. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.9. Indicator: Economic Interdependence (Globalization) Identify patterns of economic activity in terms of primary (growing or extracting), secondary (manufacturing) and tertiary (distributing and services) activities. Plot data and draw conclusions about how the percentage of the working population in each of these categories varies by country and changes over time.
      • WG.4.10. Indicator: Economic Interdependence (Globalization) Describe and locate on maps the worldwide occurrence of the three major economic systems -traditional, planned and market - and describe the characteristics of each. (Economics)
      • WG.4.11. Indicator: Economic Interdependence (Globalization) Compare the levels of economic development of countries of the world in terms of Gross Domestic Product per capita and key demographic and social indicators. Map and summarize the results.
      • WG.4.12. Indicator: Economic Interdependence (Globalization) Explain the meaning of the word infrastructure and analyze its relationship to a country's level of development. (Economics; Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.13. Indicator: Economic Interdependence (Globalization) Identify contemporary spatial patterns in the movement of goods and services throughout the world.
      • WG.4.14. Indicator: Economic Interdependence (Globalization) Describe and illustrate the economic interdependence of countries and regions. (Economics)
      • WG.4.15. Indicator: Economic Interdependence (Globalization) Assess the growing worldwide impact of tourism and recreation and explain the economic, social and political effects of these activities.
      • WG.4.16. Indicator: Human Settlement Describe and explain the worldwide trend toward urbanization and be able to graph the trend. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.17. Indicator: Human Settlement Explain how the internal structures of cities vary in different regions of the world and give examples. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.18. Indicator: Human Settlement Analyze the changing functions of cities over time. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.19. Indicator: Cooperation and Conflict Identify specific situations where human or cultural factors are involved in geographic conflict and identify different viewpoints in the conflict. Create scenarios under which these cultural factors would no longer trigger conflict. (Economics; Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.4.20. Indicator: Cooperation and Conflict Identify international organizations of global power and influence (North Atlantic Treaty Organization/ NATO, the United Nations, the European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations/ASEAN) and report on the impact of each. (Economics, Government)
    • WG.5. Proficiency Statement: Environment and Society Students will acquire a framework for thinking geographically about the environment and society. They will analyze ways in which humans affect and are affected by their physical environment and the changes that occur in the meaning, distribution and importance of resources.
      • WG.5.1. Indicator: Identify and describe the effect of human interaction on the world's environment. (Economics; Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.5.2. Indicator: Identify solutions to problems caused by environmental changes brought on by human activity. (Economics; Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.5.3. Indicator: Map the occurrence and describe the effects of natural hazards throughout the world and explain ways to cope with them. (Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.5.4. Indicator: Analyze the possible effect of a natural disaster on the local community and devise plans to cope with a disaster so as to minimize or mitigate its effects.
      • WG.5.5. Indicator: Describe how and why the ability of people to use Earth's resources to feed themselves has changed over time. (Economics; Government; History; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.5.6. Indicator: Identify patterns of world resource distribution and utilization, and explain the consequences of the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.5.7. Indicator: Identify example's from different world regions, involving the use and management of resources. Explain how different points of view influence policies relating to the use of these resources. (Economics; Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WG.5.8 Indicator: Create basic policies designed to guide the use and management of Earth's resources and that reflect multiple points of view.
  • IN.WH. Standard: World History and Civilization
    • WH.1. Proficiency Statement: Beginnings of Human Society and the Development of Cultural Hearths Students will examine the lives of people during the beginnings of human society.
      • WH.1.1. Indicator: Trace the approximate chronology and territorial range of early human communities, and analyze the processes that led to their development.
      • WH.1.2. Indicator: Describe types of evidence and methods of investigation by which scholars have reconstructed the early history of domestication, agricultural settlement and cultural development.
      • WH.1.3. Indicator: Describe social, cultural and economic characteristics of large agricultural settlements on the basis of evidence gathered by archaeologists.
    • WH.2. Proficiency Statement: Ancient Civilizations 4000 B.C. /B.C.E. to 500 A.D. /C.E.: Students will examine the characteristics of early civilizations, including those of North Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia and East Asia from 4000 B.C. /B.C.E. to 500 A.D. /C.E.
      • WH.2.1. Indicator: Early Development of Western and Non-Western Civilizations Define civilization and identify the key differences between civilizations and other forms of social organization. (Sociology)
      • WH.2.2. Indicator: Early Development of Western and Non-Western Civilizations Compare causes and conditions by which civilizations developed in North Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia and East Asia, and explain why the emergence of these civilizations was a decisive transformation in human history. (Geography, Sociology)
      • WH.2.3. Indicator: Early Development of Western and Non-Western Civilizations Differentiate hierarchies in the social structures of early civilized peoples and explain the influence of religious belief systems upon ancient governmental systems. (Sociology)
      • WH.2.4. Indicator: Early Development of Western and Non-Western Civilizations Explain relationships in early civilizations between the development of state authority and the growth of aristocratic power, taxation systems and institutions of coerced labor, including slavery. (Government, Economics)
      • WH.2.5. Indicator: Greek Civilization Identify and explain the significance of achievements of Greeks in mathematics, science, philosophy, architecture and the arts and their impact on various peoples and places in subsequent periods of world history. (Sociology)
      • WH.2.6. Indicator: Greek Civilization Analyze the major events of the wars between the Persians and the Greeks, reasons why the Persians failed to conquer the Greeks, and consequences of the wars for Greek civilization.
      • WH.2.7. Indicator: Greek Civilization Compare and contrast the daily life, social hierarchy, culture and institutions of Athens and Sparta; describe the rivalry between Athens and Sparta; and explain the causes and consequences of the Peloponnesian War. (Geography, Government, Sociology)
      • WH.2.8. Indicator: Greek Civilization Describe the role of Alexander the Great in the spread of Hellenism in Southwest and South Asia, North Africa; and parts of Europe.
      • WH.2.9. Indicator: Roman Civilization Describe Roman Republican government and society and trace the changes that culminated in the end of the Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. (History, Government, Sociology)
      • WH.2.10. Indicator: Roman Civilization Describe Roman achievement in law and technology and explain their impact on various peoples and places in subsequent periods of world history. (Psychology, Sociology)
      • WH.2.11. Indicator: Roman Civilization Explain the origins of Christianity, including the lives and teachings of Jesus and Paul, and the relationships of early Christians with officials of the Roman Empire. (Sociology)
      • WH.2.12. Indicator: Roman Civilization Analyze the causes, conditions and consequences of the spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, including the policies of Emperor Constantine the Great. (Individuals, Society and Culture)
      • WH.2.13. Indicator: Roman Civilization Explain the causes, conditions and consequences of the decline and fall of the western part of the Roman Empire.
    • WH.3. Proficiency Statement: Major Civilizations and Empires in Asia, Africa and the Americas 1000 B.C. /B.C.E. to 1500 A.D. /C.E.: Students will trace the development of major civilizations and empires in different regions of Asia, Africa and the Americas from 1000 B.C. /B.C.E. to 1500 A.D. /C.E.
      • WH.3.1. Indicator: Asia Trace the development and major achievements of civilization in India with particular emphasis on the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire, the ''golden period'' of the Gupta Empire, and the reign of Emperor Ashoka. (Government)
      • WH.3.2. Indicator: Asia Examine, interpret and compare the main ideas of Hinduism and Buddhism and explain their influence on civilization in India. (Psychology, Sociology)
      • WH.3.3. Indicator: Asia Explain how Buddhism spread and influenced peoples and their cultures throughout South Asia, Central Asia and East Asia. (Psychology, Sociology)
      • WH.3.4. Indicator: Asia Trace the development and major achievements of Chinese and East Asian civilizations during various key dynasties, such as the Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Tang and Song. (Government, Sociology)
      • WH.3.5. Indicator: Asia Describe the life of Confucius, compare and contrast the fundamental teachings of Confucianism and Daoism (Taoism), and explain the influence of these ideas on Chinese and East Asian civilizations. (Sociology)
      • WH.3.6. Indicator: Asia Describe the origins and development of Japanese society and the imperial state in Japan. (Government, Sociology)
      • WH.3.7. Indicator: Asia Describe the life of Muhammad, fundamental teachings of Islam, and connections of Islam to Judaism and Christianity. (Psychology, Sociology)
      • WH.3.8. Indicator: Asia Trace the extent and consequences of Islam's spread in Asia, the Mediterranean region and southern Europe. (Sociology)
      • WH.3.9. Indicator: Asia Explain how the community of Muslims became divided into Sunnis and Shiites and the long-term consequences of this division. (Psychology, Sociology)
      • WH.3.10. Indicator: Asia Describe and explain the rise and expansion of the Mongol empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples, including the achievements of the great Khan in the context of Mongol society and his impact on history.
      • WH.3.11. Indicator: Africa Analyze and explain the rise and fall of the ancient Eastern and Southern African kingdoms of Kush and Axum, Abyssinia, and Zimbabwe.
      • WH.3.12. Indicator: Africa Describe the rise and fall of the ancient kingdom of Ghana and explain how it became Africa's first large empire.
      • WH.3.13. Indicator: Africa Explain the rise, development and decline of Mali and Songhai.
      • WH.3.14. Indicator: Africa Analyze and explain the origins and development of the slave trade in Africa and its connections to Arabic peoples of North Africa and Southwest Asia and to Western European peoples. (Sociology)
      • WH.3.15. Indicator: The Americas Identify the origins and explain the importance of farming in the development of pre-Columbian societies and civilizations in various regions of the Americas. (Geography, Sociology)
      • WH.3.16. Indicator: The Americas Compare and contrast the Maya, Aztec and Inca civilizations in terms of their arts, religion, sciences, economy, social hierarchy, government, armed forces and imperial expansion.
    • WH.4. Proficiency Statement: Civilization 500 to 1650: Students will examine the political, economic, social and cultural development of Europe, which influenced the rise of Western Civilization, particularly the Renaissance and Reformation from 500 to 1650.
      • WH.4.1. Indicator: Describe the impact of Christian monasteries and convents on Europe, and explain how Christianity and classical Greco-Roman civilization influenced Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire. (Sociology)
      • WH.4.2. Indicator: Describe the impact on Western Europe of the collapse of the Roman Empire.
      • WH.4.3. Indicator: Describe the rise and achievements of Charlemagne and the Empire of the Franks.
      • WH.4.4. Indicator: Explain how the idea of Christendom influenced the development of cultural unity in Europe. (Sociology)
      • WH.4.5. Indicator: Describe how technological improvements in agriculture, the growth of towns, the creation of guilds, and the development of banking during the Middle Ages, as well as the institutions of feudalism and the manorial system influenced European civilization. (Economics, Government, Sociology)
      • WH.4.6. Indicator: Analyze and compare the success of the Roman and Orthodox churches in spreading the Christian religion and civilization to peoples of Northern and Eastern Europe. (Sociology)
      • WH.4.7. Indicator: Explain the Great Schism of 1054 and the development of Eastern and Western branches of Christianity. (Sociology)
      • WH.4.8. Indicator: Explain the causes of the Crusades and their consequences for Europe and Southwest Asia, including the growth in power of the monarchies in Europe. (Government, Sociology)
      • WH.4.9. Indicator: Describe the rise, achievements, decline and demise of the Byzantine Empire; the relationships of Byzantine and Western Civilizations; the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453; and the impact on European peoples living in the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire. (Government, Sociology)
      • WH.4.10. Indicator: Trace the origins and developments of the Northern Renaissance and the Italian Renaissance. Explain Renaissance diffusion throughout Western Europe and its impact on peoples and places associated with western civilization.
      • WH.4.11. Indicator: Describe the main themes and achievements of the Protestant Reformation, including its impact on science, technology and the arts. (Sociology)
      • WH.4.12. Indicator: Analyze the factors that led to the rise and spread of the Protestant Reformation as well as the reaction of the Catholic Church. Discuss the consequences of these actions on the development of western civilization. (Sociology)
      • WH.4.13. Indicator: Explain the causes, events and consequences of wars associated with the Protestant Reformation, which culminated with the Thirty Years War, 1618 to 1648. (Economics, Government)
    • WH.5. Proficiency Statement: Worldwide Exploration, Conquest and Colonization 1450 to 1750: Students will examine the causes, events, and consequences of worldwide exploration, conquest and colonization from 1450 to 1750.
      • WH.5.1. Indicator: Explain the causes and conditions of worldwide voyages of exploration and discovery by expeditions from China, Portugal, Spain, France, England and the Netherlands.
      • WH.5.2. Indicator: Explain the origins, developments and consequences of the transatlantic slave trade between Africa and the Americas. Analyze and compare the ways that slavery and other forms of coerced labor or social bondage were practiced in East Africa, West Africa, Southwest Asia, Europe and the Americas from 1450 to 1750. (Economics, Geography, Sociology)
      • WH.5.3. Indicator: Explain the origins, developments, main events and consequences of European overseas expansion through conquest and colonization in Africa, Asia and the Americas. (Economics, Geography, Sociology)
      • WH.5.4. Indicator: Identify major technological innovations in shipbuilding, navigation, and naval warfare, and explain how these technological advances were related to voyages of exploration, conquest and colonization. (Economics, Geography)
    • WH.6. Proficiency Statement: Scientific, Political, Cultural and Industrial Revolutions 1500 to 1900: Students will examine the causes, events and global consequences of the scientific, political, cultural and industrial revolutions that originated in Western Europe and profoundly influenced the world from 1500 to 1900.
      • WH.6.1. Indicator: Examine how the Scientific Revolution, as well as technological changes and new forms of energy, brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change. (Economics, Government, Psychology, Sociology)
      • WH.6.2. Indicator: Trace the origins and consequences of the English Civil War on the government and society of England, and explain the significance of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 for the development of government and liberty in England and its colonies in North America. (Economics, Government)
      • WH.6.3. Indicator: Explain the concept of ''the Enlightenment'' in European history and describe its impact upon political thought and government in Europe, North America and other regions of the world. (Economics, Government)
      • WH.6.4. Indicator: Compare and contrast the causes and events of the American and French Revolutions of the late eighteenth century and explain their consequences for the growth of liberty, equality and democracy in Europe, the Americas and other parts of the world. (Government, Sociology)
      • WH.6.5. Indicator: Describe the causes, events and outcomes of the Latin American independence movements of the nineteenth century. (Government, Sociology)
      • WH.6.6. Indicator: Describe the causes and conditions of the Industrial Revolution in England, Europe and the United States, and explain the global consequences. (Economics, Geography, Sociology)
      • WH.6.7. Indicator: Analyze and evaluate the influence of Christianity, the Enlightenment and democratic revolutions and ideas in various regions of the world. (Sociology)
    • WH.7. Proficiency Statement: Global Imperialism 1500 to the Present: Students will examine the origins, major events and consequences of worldwide imperialism from 1500 to the present.
      • WH.7.1. Indicator: Discuss the rise of nation-states and nationalism in Europe, North America and Asia and explain the causes, main events and global consequences of imperialism from these areas. (Government)
      • WH.7.2. Indicator: Analyze the causes and consequences of European imperialism upon the indigenous peoples of Africa, Asia and Oceania (Government, Sociology)
      • WH.7.3. Indicator: Analyze Japanese responses to challenges by Western imperial powers and the impact of these responses on Japan's subsequent development as an industrial, military and imperial power. (Economics, Government, Sociology)
    • WH.8. Proficiency Statement: An Era of Global Conflicts, Challenges, Controversies and Changes 1900 to the Present: Students will analyze and explain trends and events of global significance, such as world wars, international controversies and challenges, and cross-cultural changes that have connected once-separated regions into an incipient global community.
      • WH.8.1. Indicator: Trace and explain the causes, major events and global consequences of World War I.
      • WH.8.2. Indicator: Explain causes of the February and October Revolutions of 1917 in Russia, their effects on the outcome of World War I, and the success of the Bolsheviks (Communists) in their establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (Economics, Government, Sociology)
      • WH.8.3. Indicator: Compare the totalitarian ideologies, institutions and leaders of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Germany and Italy in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. (Government, Sociology)
      • WH.8.4. Indicator: Identify and analyze the causes, events and consequences of World War II.
      • WH.8.5. Indicator: Explain the origins and purposes of international alliances in the context of World War I and World War II.
      • WH.8.6. Indicator: Explain the causes and consequences of the Cold War. (Government, Psychology, Sociology)
      • WH.8.7. Indicator: Identify new post-war nations in South and Southeast Asia and Africa that were created from former colonies, and describe the reconfiguration of the African continent. (Government)
      • WH.8.8. Indicator: Describe and explain the origins of the modern state of Israel and the reactions of the peoples and states in southwest Asia. (Government)
      • WH.8.9. Indicator: Describe ethnic or nationalistic conflicts and violence in various parts of the world, including Southeastern Europe, Southwest and Central Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. (Sociology)
      • WH.8.10. Indicator: Describe and analyze the global expansion of democracy since the 1970s and the successes or failures of democratic reform movements in challenging authoritarian or despotic regimes in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America.
      • WH.8.11. Indicator: Identify contemporary international organizations. Describe why each was established and assess their success, consequences for citizen and the role of particular countries in achieving the goals of each. (Economics, Government)
    • WH.9. Proficiency Statement: Historical Thinking Students will conduct historical research that incorporates information literacy skills such as forming appropriate research questions; evaluating information by determining accuracy, relevance and comprehensiveness; interpreting a variety of primary and secondary sources; and presenting their findings with documentation.
      • WH.9.1. Indicator: Chronological Thinking, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making Identify patterns of historical change and duration and construct a representation that illustrates continuity and change.
      • WH.9.2. Indicator: Chronological Thinking, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making Locate and analyze primary sources and secondary sources related to an event or issue of the past.
      • WH.9.3. Indicator: Chronological Thinking, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making Investigate and interpret multiple -causation in analyzing historical actions, and analyze cause-and-effect relationships.
      • WH.9.4. Indicator: Chronological Thinking, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making Explain issues and problems of the past by analyzing the interests and viewpoints of those involved.
      • WH.9.5. Indicator: Chronological Thinking, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making Use technology in the process of conducting historical research and in the presentation of the products of historical research and current events.
      • WH.9.6. Indicator: Chronological Thinking, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making Formulate and present a position or course of action on an issue by examining the underlying factors contributing to that issue.
 
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