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Georgia: 6th-Grade Standards

  • GA.SS6H. Strand/topic: Latin America and Canada

    Historical Understandings

    • SS6H1. Standard:

      The student will describe the civilizations at the time of the Columbian Exchange and the impact of European exploration on those civilizations.

      • SS6H1.a. Element:

        Describe Aztec and Incan societies prior to the Columbian Exchange; include religious beliefs, origins of their empires, the astronomic and calendar developments of the Aztecs, and the roads and aqueducts of the Incas.

      • SS6H1.b. Element:

        Describe the encounter and consequences between the Spanish and the Aztec and Incan civilizations; include how small Spanish forces defeated large empires, and the roles of Cortes, Pizarro, Montezuma, and Atahualpa.

    • SS6H2. Standard:

      The student will explain the development of Latin America and the Caribbean and Canada as colonies of European nations and on through their independence.

      • SS6H2.a. Element:

        Describe the importance of African slavery on the development of the Americas.

      • SS6H2.b. Element:

        Explain the importance of the Spanish mission system in developing Latin America.

      • SS6H2.c. Element:

        Explain the colonization of Canada by the French and later the English.

      • SS6H2.d. Element:

        Explain the Latin American independence movement; include the importance of Touissant L'Ouverture in Haiti, and Miguel Hidalgo, Simon Bolivar, and Jose de San Martin.

      • SS6H2.e. Element:

        Explain how Canada became an independent nation.

    • SS6H3. Standard:

      The student will analyze important 20th century issues in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Canada.

      • SS6H3.a. Element:

        Describe the development of nationalism and the role of leaders such as Juan and Eva Peron.

      • SS6H3.b. Element:

        Explain the role of the Organization of American States.

      • SS6H3.c. Element:

        Analyze the impact of the Cuban Revolution.

      • SS6H3.d. Element:

        Describe Quebec's independence movement.

      • SS6H3.e. Element:

        Analyze the impact and political outcomes of guerrilla movements in Latin America, such as Shining Path in Peru, the FARC in Colombia, and the Zapatistas in Mexico.

  • GA.SS6G. Strand/topic: Latin America and Canada

    Geographic Understandings

    • SS6G1. Standard:

      The student will be able to describe and locate the important physical and human characteristics of Latin America and the Caribbean and Canada.

      • SS6G1.a. Element:

        Describe and locate major physical features; include the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Alaska, Hudson Bay, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, the Great Lakes, Panama Canal, Amazon River, Andes Mountains, Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Mountains, St. Lawrence River, Patagonia, Atacama Desert, and Rio de la Plata.

      • SS6G1.b. Element:

        Describe and locate Canada and the nations of Latin America; include Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, Venezuela, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, Haiti, and Jamaica.

    • SS6G2. Standard:

      The student will discuss the impact of government policies and individual behaviors on Latin American and the Caribbean and Canadian environments.

      • SS6G2.a. Element:

        Describe Canadian policies concerning pollution; include acid rain and pollution of the Great Lakes, the extraction and use of natural resources on the Canadian Shield, and timber resources.

      • SS6G2.b. Element:

        Describe the approaches of Latin American countries in dealing with environmental issues; include air pollution in Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile; the destruction of the rain forest in Brazil; and oil-related pollution in Venezuela, Mexico, and Ecuador.

    • SS6G3. Standard:

      The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, natural resources, and population size on Latin America and the Caribbean and Canada.

      • SS6G3.a. Element:

        Describe how Canada's location, climate, and natural resources have affected where people live and where agricultural and industrial regions are located; and describe their impact on trade, especially the importance of the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Great Lakes.

      • SS6G3.b. Element:

        Describe how the location, climate, and natural resources of Mexico, Brazil, Chile, and Bolivia have affected where people live, where agricultural and industrial regions are located, and their impact on trade, especially the importance of the Amazon River, the Rio de la Plata, the rain forest, the Mexican Plateau, and the Andes Mountains.

      • SS6G3.c. Element:

        Explain the distribution of natural resources and how that has affected the peoples of the Caribbean.

      • SS6G3.d. Element:

        Explain the impact of natural disasters (i.e., hurricanes, earthquakes, floods) on Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    • SS6G4. Standard:

      The student will describe the cultural characteristics of Latin America and the Caribbean and Canada.

      • SS6G4.a. Element:

        Identify the reasons Canada has two official languages, English and French, and the traditions, customs, and religions of the English and French-speaking areas.

      • SS6G4.b. Element:

        Describe the traditions, customs, religion, and life style of the Native Americans who inhabit the Northern territories of Canada.

      • SS6G4.c. Element:

        Identify the major ethnic groups of Latin America; include indigenous groups such as mestizos, mulattos, and peoples of European and African descent, where they live, their major religions, customs, and traditions.

      • SS6G4.d. Element:

        Explain how the literacy rate in Canada, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile affects each nation's development in the modern world.

      • SS6G4.e. Element:

        Explain the major literary, artistic, and music forms of people in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • GA.SS6CG. Strand/topic: Latin America and Canada

    Government/Civic Understandings

    • SS6CG1. Standard:

      The student will explain the structure of national governments in Latin America and the Caribbean and Canada.

      • SS6CG1.a. Element:

        Explain the basic structure of the national governments of Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, and Mexico; include the type of government, form of leadership, type of legislature, and role of the citizen.

      • SS6CG1.b. Element:

        Describe the structure of the Canadian government; include the type of government, form of leadership, type of legislature, and role of the citizen.

      • SS6CG1.c. Element:

        Describe Canada's relationship to the United Kingdom.

  • GA.SS6E. Strand/topic: Latin America and Canada

    Economic Understandings

    • SS6E1. Standard:

      The student will describe different economic systems (traditional, command, market, mixed) and how they answer the basic economic questions (What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce?) and explain the basic types of economic systems found in Canada, Mexico, Cuba, and Argentina.

    • SS6E2. Standard:

      The student will give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Latin America and the Caribbean and Canada.

      • SS6E2.a. Element:

        Analyze how Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil benefit from trade.

      • SS6E2.b. Element:

        Define types of trade barriers, both physical barriers, such as Bolivia as a landlocked country, and economic barriers, such as tariffs.

      • SS6E2.c. Element:

        Analyze the development and impact of trade blocks such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR), and Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

      • SS6E2.d. Element:

        Describe why international trade requires a system for exchanging currency between and among nations and name currencies from nations such as Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Chile; and explain why Ecuador, El Salvador, and Panama chose to adopt the U.S. dollar as their currency.

    • SS6E3. Standard:

      The student will describe the factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in countries such as Canada, Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina.

      • SS6E3.a. Element:

        Describe investment in human capital; include the health, education and training of people, and the impact of poverty on economic development.

      • SS6E3.b. Element:

        Describe investment in capital goods; include factories, machinery, and new technology.

      • SS6E3.c. Element:

        Describe the role of natural resources; include land, air, water, minerals, time, and other gifts of nature.

      • SS6E3.d. Element:

        Describe the role of entrepreneurs who take the risks of organizing productive resources.

    • SS6E4. Standard:

      The student will explain personal money management choices in terms of income, spending, credit, saving, and investing.

  • GA.SS6H. Strand/topic: Europe

    Historical Understandings

    • SS6H4. Standard:

      The student will describe the important developments in Europe between 1400 CE and 1800 CE.

      • SS6H4.a. Element:

        Explain how artists such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci contributed to the Renaissance.

      • SS6H4.b. Element:

        Explain the role of Martin Luther in the Reformation.

      • SS6H4.c. Element:

        Explain how scientists such as Galileo and Newton changed our knowledge of science and why the Scientific Revolution is important.

      • SS6H4.d. Element:

        Explain the importance of exploration in the development of Europe; include the work of Prince Henry the Navigator, Columbus, and Hudson.

      • SS6H4.e. Element:

        Trace the empires of Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.

      • SS6H4.f. Element:

        Describe the Industrial Revolution; include its impact on cities, life styles, and agriculture.

      • SS6H4.g. Element:

        Describe the impact Peter the Great and Catherine the Great had on Russia.

    • SS6H5. Standard:

      The student will describe major developments in Europe during the 20th century.

      • SS6H5.a. Element:

        Describe major developments of World War I; include the reasons for the War, the Russian Revolution, the collapse of empires, and the consequences of making Germany pay for World War I.

      • SS6H5.b. Element:

        Describe the impact of the world-wide depression on Europe, especially Germany.

      • SS6H5.c. Element:

        Describe World War II; include the ideas of Nazism and Facism, the Allied and Axis powers, the Holocaust, D-Day, Stalingrad, and the roles of Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Truman.

      • SS6H5.d. Element:

        Explain the collapse of the Soviet Union; include the failure of communism, the rise of the desire for freedom (Solidarity in Poland), and the fall of the Berlin Wall.

      • SS6H5.e. Element:

        Explain the significance of the reunification of Germany after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

      • SS6H5.f. Element:

        Explain the origin and function of the European Union.

  • GA.SS6G. Strand/topic: Europe

    Geographic Understandings

    • SS6G5. Standard:

      The student will be able to describe and locate the important physical and human characteristics of Europe.

      • SS6G5.a. Element:

        Describe and locate major physical features; include the Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, Baltic Sea, Volga River, Danube River, Rhine River, Elbe River, Seine River, Po River, Thames River, the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Balkan Mountains, Ural Mountains, Strait of Gibraltar, English Channel, Iberian Peninsula, and Scandinavian Peninsula.

      • SS6G5.b. Element:

        Describe and locate the nations of Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Poland, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Italy, Hungary, Austria, Czech Republic, Romania, Netherlands, Belgium, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine.

      • SS6G5.c. Element:

        Describe the geographic and cultural boundaries of Europe; include whether Turkey should be considered part of Europe or Asia.

    • SS6G6. Standard:

      The student will discuss the impact of government policies and individual behaviors on the European environment.

      • SS6G6.a. Element:

        Explain the major concerns of Europeans regarding the environment; include issues of agricultural reform, air quality in cities, the impact of global warming, and water pollution.

      • SS6G6.b. Element:

        Describe the policies of countries such as Germany, England, France, Poland, and Russia concerning agricultural reform, air quality in cities, the impact of global warming, and water pollution.

      • SS6G6.c. Element:

        Describe the environmental consequences resulting from the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl, Ukraine.

    • SS6G7. Standard:

      The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, natural resources, and population size on Europe.

      • SS6G7.a. Element:

        Describe how Europe's location, climate, and natural resources have affected where people live and where agricultural and industrial regions are located; and describe their impact on trade, especially the importance of the river system and the many good harbors.

      • SS6G7.b. Element:

        Explain the distribution of natural resources and how that has affected Europe.

    • SS6G8. Standard:

      The student will describe the cultural characteristics of Europe.

      • SS6G8.a. Element:

        Explain the diversity of European culture as seen in a comparison of German, Greek, Russian, French, and Italian languages, customs, and traditions.

      • SS6G8.b. Element:

        Describe the customs and traditions of the major religions in Europe; include Judaism, Christianity (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant), and Islam and locate where each religion is the primary religion.

      • SS6G8.c. Element:

        Explain how the literacy rate in Europe has had an impact on its development in the modern world.

      • SS6G8.d. Element:

        Describe major contributions to literature (e.g., Nobel Prize winning authors), art (e.g., Van Gogh, Picasso), and music (e.g., classical, opera, Andrew Lloyd Webber).

  • GA.SS6CG. Strand/topic: Europe

    Government/Civic Understandings

    • SS6CG2. Standard:

      The student will describe modern European governments.

      • SS6CG2.a. Element:

        Explain the parliamentary system of the United Kingdom and compare it with a presidential system, such as the U.S., and the dual system of France.

      • SS6CG2.b. Element:

        Describe the transition of central European countries, such as Poland, from authoritarian systems to democratic systems.

      • SS6CG2.c. Element:

        Describe the purpose of the European Union and the relationship between member nations.

  • GA.SS6E. Strand/topic: Europe

    Economic Understandings

    • SS6E5. Standard:

      The student will describe different economic systems (traditional, command, market, mixed) and how they answer the basic economic questions (What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce?) and explain the basic types of economic systems found in England, Germany, and Russia.

    • SS6E6. Standard:

      The student will give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Europe.

      • SS6E6.a. Element:

        Explain how countries such as England, France, and the Netherlands developed extensive colonial empires as an important aspect of their economies.

      • SS6E6.b. Element:

        Define types of trade barriers, both physical and economic, and how they influence the development of trade within Europe (e.g., extensive trade by rivers, different currencies in each European country).

      • SS6E6.c. Element:

        Illustrate how international trade requires a system for exchanging currency between and among nations and how the European Union and the Euro facilitate trade.

      • SS6E6.d. Element:

        Identify examples of currencies from nations such as England, France, Italy, Greece, Russia, and Poland.

    • SS6E7. Standard:

      The student will describe the factors that cause economic growth and examine their presence or absence in countries such as England, Germany, Russia, Poland, and Romania.

      • SS6E7.a. Element:

        Describe investment in human capital; include the health, education, and training of people.

      • SS6E7.b. Element:

        Describe investment in capital goods; include factories, machinery, and new technology.

      • SS6E7.c. Element:

        Describe the role of natural resources; include land, air, water, minerals, time, and other gifts of nature.

      • SS6E7.d. Element:

        Describe the role of entrepreneurs who take the risks of organizing productive resources.

  • GA.SS6H. Strand/topic: Australia and Oceania

    Historical Understandings

    • SS6H6. Standard:

      The student will describe the culture and development of Australia and Oceania prior to contact with Europeans.

      • SS6H6.a. Element:

        Describe the origins and culture of the Aborigines.

      • SS6H6.b. Element:

        Describe the origins and culture of the Maori of New Zealand.

    • SS6H7. Standard:

      The student will explain the impact European exploration and colonization had on Australia and Oceania.

      • SS6H7.a. Element:

        Explain the reasons for British colonization of Australia; include the use of prisoners as colonists.

      • SS6H7.b. Element:

        Explain the impact of European diseases and weapons on the indigenous peoples of Australia and Oceania.

    • SS6H8. Standard:

      The student will discuss the impact of important 20th century events on Australia and Oceania.

      • SS6H8.a. Element:

        Explain the impact of World War II on Australia and Oceania.

      • SS6H8.b. Element:

        Describe the importance of tourism on the region.

  • GA.SS6G. Strand/topic: Australia and Oceania

    Geographic Understandings

    • SS6G9. Standard:

      The student will be able to describe and locate the important physical and human characteristics of Australia and Oceania.

      • SS6G9.a. Element:

        Describe and locate the major physical features; include the Great Barrier Reef, Great Sandy Desert, Great Victoria Desert, Antarctica, and Coral Sea.

      • SS6G9.b. Element:

        Locate the nations of Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Vanuatu.

      • SS6G9.c. Element: Locate the three sub-regions of Oceania

        Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

    • SS6G10. Standard:

      The student will discuss the impact of government policies and individual behaviors on the environments of Australia and Oceania.

      • SS6G10.a. Element:

        Explain major environmental concerns Australians have regarding issues such as protection of the Great Barrier Reef, ozone depletion, and global warming, as well as the actions taken by the government and/or citizens regarding these concerns.

      • SS6G10.b. Element:

        Explain major environmental concerns of Oceania; include overfishing, climate change, freshwater resources, and pollution, as well as the actions taken by the government and individuals regarding these issues.

    • SS6G11. Standard:

      The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, natural resources, and population size on Australia and Oceania.

      • SS6G11.a. Element:

        Describe how Australia's location, climate, and natural resources have affected where people live and where agricultural and industrial regions are located; and describe their impact on trade, especially the importance of deserts, the river system, and the many good harbors.

      • SS6G11.b. Element:

        Explain the unique challenges in Oceania as a collection of islands and how that has affected where people live, development of agriculture, and types of industry or jobs.

    • SS6G12. Standard:

      The student will describe the cultural characteristics of Australia and Oceania.

      • SS6G12.a. Element:

        Explain the aboriginal culture that existed in Australia prior to the arrival of Europeans; include aboriginal art, religious beliefs, customs, and traditions and how that culture is still evident in Australia today.

      • SS6G12.b. Element:

        Describe the modern culture of Australia; include prominent Australian authors, musicians, and artists.

      • SS6G12.c. Element:

        Describe the culture of Oceania; include the customs, traditions, and religious beliefs of the original population and how they have influenced modern Oceania.

  • GA.SS6CG. Strand/topic: Australia and Oceania

    Government/Civic Understandings

    • SS6CG3. Standard:

      The student will describe the political structures of Oceania.

      • SS6CG3.a. Element:

        Explain the structure of the national government of New Zealand; include the type of government, form of leadership, type of legislature, and role of the citizen.

      • SS6CG3.b. Element:

        Describe the national government of the Federated States of Micronesia.

      • SS6CG3.c. Element:

        Describe the Australian national government; include the type of government, form of leadership, type of legislature, and role of the citizen.

      • SS6CG3.d. Element:

        Describe the relationship of Australia to the United Kingdom.

  • GA.SS6E. Strand/topic: Australia and Oceania

    Economic Understandings

    • SS6E8. Standard:

      The student will describe different economic systems (traditional, command, market, mixed) and how they answer the basic economic questions (What to pro- duce? How to produce? For whom to produce?) and explain the basic types of economic systems found in Australia and the Federated States of Micronesia.

    • SS6E9. Standard:

      The student will give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Australia and Oceania.

      • SS6E9.a. Element:

        Explain the impact of trade and tourism on Australia and the Federated States of Micronesia.

      • SS6E9.b. Element:

        Define types of trade barriers, both physical and economic, for countries located in Oceania, such as distances to other trading partners and restrictions of island nations.

    • SS6E10. Standard:

      The student will describe the factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Australia and Oceania.

      • SS6E10.a. Element:

        Describe investment in human capital; include the health, education, and training of people.

      • SS6E10.b. Element:

        Describe investment in capital goods; include factories, machinery, and new technology.

      • SS6E10.c. Element:

        Describe the role of natural resources; include land, air, water, minerals, time, and other gifts of nature.

      • SS6E10.d. Element:

        Describe the role of entrepreneurs who take the risks of organizing productive resources.

  • GA.SS6RC. Strand/topic: Australia and Oceania

    Reading Across the Curriculum

    • SS6RC1. Standard: Students will enhance reading in all curriculum areas by

      • SS6RC1.a. Element: Reading in All Curriculum Areas

        Read a minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books per year from a variety of subject disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas; Read both informational and fictional texts in a variety of genres and modes of discourse; Read technical texts related to various subject areas.

      • SS6RC1.b. Element: Discussing books

        Discuss messages and themes from books in all subject areas; Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse; Relate messages and themes from one subject area to messages and themes in another area; Evaluate the merit of texts in every subject discipline; Examine author's purpose in writing; Recognize the features of disciplinary texts.

      • SS6RC1.c. Element: Building vocabulary knowledge

        Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in various subjects; Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking; Explore understanding of new words found in subject area texts.

      • SS6RC1.d. Element: Establishing context

        Explore life experiences related to subject area content; Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words are subject area related; Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown words.

 
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