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DC: Eleventh Grade Standards

(Note: In 2011, DC public schools began transitioning to the Common Core State Standards.)

U.S. History and Geography II: Industrial America to the Present

  • United States to the 1800s

    • 11.1. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence.

      1. Describe the Enlightenment and the rise of democratic ideas as the context in which the nation was founded. (P)
      2. Describe the early settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth, including the purpose of the Mayflower Compact and its principles of self-government.
      3. Describe the origins, key events, and key figures of the American Revolution.
      4. Analyze the framers’ philosophy of divinely bestowed unalienable natural rights, the influence and ideas of the Declaration of Independence, and the reasons for the adoption of the Articles of Confederation.
      5. Analyze the shortcomings of the Articles, and describe the crucial events leading to the ratification of the Constitution and the addition of the Bill of Rights, including the debates over slavery. (P)
      6. Explain the historical and intellectual influences on the American Revolution and the formation and framework of the American government.
      7. Explain the history of the Constitution after 1787, including federal versus state authority and growing democratization. (P)
      8. Examine a historical map, and identify the physical location of the states and geographical regions of the United States post-Reconstruction. (G)
      9. Explain the effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction and of the Industrial Revolution, including demographic shifts and the emergence in the late 19th century of the United States as a world power. (G, P, E)
      10. Trace the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in the United States in response to the Industrial Revolution.
  • The Rise of Industrial America (1877-1914)

    • 11.2. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in the United States in response to the Industrial Revolution.

      1. Explain patterns of agricultural and industrial development as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets and trade, and the location of such development on a map. (G, E)
      2. Outline the reasons for the development of federal Indian policy, the wars with American Indians, and their relationship to agricultural development and industrialization. (G, P, M, E)
      3. Explain the impact of the Hayes-Tilden Presidential election of 1876 and the end of reconstruction on African Americans (i.e., the rise of Jim Crow laws, lynching, the First Great Migration). (P, S)
      4. Explain how states and the federal government encouraged business expansion through tariffs, banking, land grants, and subsidies. (P, E)
      5. Identify the characteristics and impact of Grangerism and Populism. (P)
      6. Explain child labor, working conditions, and laissez-faire policies toward big business; the labor movement, including its leaders (e.g., Samuel Gompers), and its demand for collective bargaining; and union strikes and protests over labor conditions. (S, E)
      7. List and identify the significant inventors and their inventions and how they improved the quality of life (e.g., Thomas Edison, Lewis Latimer, Alexander Graham Bell, and Orville and Wilbur Wright). (S, I, E)
      8. Describe entrepreneurs, industrialists, and bankers in politics, commerce, and industry (e.g., Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Leland Stanford, and Madame C.J. Walker). (E)
    • 11.3. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze the social and economic contributions of immigrants to the building of cities and the economy during the Industrial Revolution.

      1. Identify the new sources of large-scale immigration and locate on a map their countries of origin and where they have tended to settle in large numbers (e.g., Italians, Jews, Poles, Slovaks, Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese). (G, E, S)
      2. Explain the ways in which new social and economic patterns encourage assimilation of newcomers into the mainstream amid growing cul- tural diversity and how this relates to the new wave of nativism. (G, S)
      3. Identify the role that young immigrant women (e.g., Irish, Italian, and Jewish) played within the expanding garment industry, the harsh conditions that they endured, and the impact their employment had on their families. (E, S)
      4. Trace the expansion and development of Western railroads (the Transcontinental Railroad), the Golden Spike event (1869), and the role that Chinese immigrant laborers (Central Pacific track) and Irish immigrant laborers (Union Pacific track) played in its construction. (G, E, S)
      5. Examine and analyze the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) and its revisions (1884, 1892, and 1902) and the effects that it had on Asian immigrants in the United States. (S, E, P)
  • The Progressive Era (1890-1920)

    • 11.4. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze the changing landscape, including the growth of cities and development of cities divided by race, ethnicity, and class.

      1. Trace the rise of industrialization. (E, S)
      2. Explain the large-scale rural-to-urban migration, as well as massive immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe. (G, E)
      3. Explain, with the use of a map, the economic development of the United States and its emergence as a major industrial power, including its gains from trade and the advantages of its physical geography. (G, E)
      4. Debate the ideas of Social Darwinism. (P, S)
      5. Debate the ideas of Social Gospel. (P, S)
      6. Debate the value of industrial education versus liberal arts education (as articulated in the ideas of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois, respectively).
      7. Explain the effect of the political programs and activities of the Populists. (P)
      8. Describe corporate mergers that produced trusts and cartels and the economic and political policies of industrial leaders. (P, E)
      9. Explain the effect of the political programs and activities of the Progressives (e.g., the Children’s Bureau, the 16th Amendment, and Theodore Roosevelt). (P)
      10. Explain the effects of industrialization on living and working conditions, including working conditions and food safety. (E, S)
      11. Trace on a map the Great Migration of African Americans that began in the early 1900s (and lasted through many decades) from the rural South to the industrial regions of the Northeast and Midwest, and examine how this mass migration initiated the change from a rural to urban lifestyle for many African Americans. (G, E, S)
    • 11.5. Broad Concept:

      Students trace the rise of the United States to its role as a world power in the 20th century.

      1. List and explain the purpose and the effects of the Open Door Policy (expansion into Asia). (G, P)
      2. Describe responses, particularly from the African American community, to the U.S. partition of Africa, the Cuban-Spanish-American War, annexation of Philippines, Hawaii, occupation of Haiti and Puerto Rico. (G, P, M)
      3. Describe the role of the United States in the Panama Revolution and the building of the Panama Canal, and the intensified military and economic intervention in Central America and the Caribbean. (G, P)
      4. Describe America’s diplomacy (e.g., Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy, William Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy). (P)
      5. Explain the causes of World War I in 1914 and the reasons for the declaration of U.S. neutrality.
      6. List and identify the reasons for American entry into World War I, and explain how the entry of the United States affected the course and outcome of the war. (P, M)
      7. Identify and explain the principal theaters of battle, major turning points, and the importance of geographic factors in military decisions and outcomes (e.g., topography, waterways, distance, and climate). (G, M)
      8. Analyze the aims and negotiating roles of world leaders, including Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and the causes and effects of U.S. rejection of the League of Nations on world politics. (P)
      9. Analyze the political, economic, and social ramifications of World War I on the home front. (P, S, E)
  • The 1920s and 1930s

    • 11.6. Broad Concept:

      Students describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and throughout the 1920s.

      1. Trace the growth and effects of radio and movies and their role in the worldwide diffusion of popular culture. (G, S)
      2. Describe the rise of mass-production techniques, the growth of cities, the impact of new technologies (e.g., the automobile, electricity, airplanes), and the resulting prosperity, expansion of freedom (derived from the car and the building of roads/highways), and effect on the American landscape. (G, E)
      3. Describe the policies of presidents Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover (e.g., “associationism,” The Teapot Dome scandal, “New Era” politics). (P)
      4. Analyze the attacks on civil liberties and racial and ethnic tensions, including the Palmer Raids, the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, and the emergence of Garveyism. (P, S)
      5. Analyze the attacks on civil liberties and racial and ethnic tensions, including the Palmer Raids, the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, and the emergence of Garveyism. (P, S)
      6. Trace the responses of organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Anti-Defamation League to those attacks. (P, S)
      7. Explain the passage of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution and the Volstead Act (Prohibition). (P)
      8. Analyze the passage of the 19th Amendment and the changing role of women in society. (P, S)
      9. Describe the New Negro Movement/Harlem Renaissance and new trends in literature (e.g., Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, Sterling Brown, Ernest Hemingway, and F. Scott Fitzgerald) and music, with special attention to the Jazz Age (e.g., James Reese Europe, Duke Ellington, and Louis Armstrong). (I)
      10. 9. Describe forms of popular culture, with emphasis on their origins and geographic diffusion (e.g., professional sports, and flappers). (G, S)
  • The Great Depression (1929-1939)

    • 11.7. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze the causes and effects of the Great Depression and how the New Deal fundamentally changed the role of the federal government.

      1. Describe the monetary issues of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that gave rise to the establishment of the Federal Reserve and the weaknesses in key sectors of the economy in the late 1920s. (E)
      2. Describe the explanations of the principal causes of the Great Depression and the steps taken by the Federal Reserve, Congress, and presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt to combat the economic crisis and mass unemployment. (P, E)
      3. Describe the human toll of the Depression, natural disasters, unwise agricultural practices, and their effects on the depopulation of rural regions and on political movements of the left and right. (G, S)
      4. Identify, with the use of a map, how different regions of the United States were affected by the Great Depression. (G, E, S).
      5. Trace the emergence of a “New Deal coalition,” consisting of African Americans, blue-collar workers, poor farmers, Jews, and Catholics. (P)
      6. Analyze the effects of and the controversies arising from New Deal economic policies.
      7. Explain the expanded role of the federal government in society and the economy since the 1930s and how the role of the U.S. government with regard to the free market was altered (e.g., Works Progress Administration, Social Security, National Labor Relations Board, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Securities and Exchange Commission, Fair Labor Standards Act, farm programs, regional development policies, and energy development projects, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority). (P, E)
      8. Identify the importance of Roosevelt’s Black Cabinet to national race policy.
      9. Trace the advances and retreats of organized labor (e.g., the creation of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations).
      10. Debate current issues of a postindustrial, multinational economy. (P, E)
  • World War II (1939-1947)

    • 11.8. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze America’s participation in World War II.

      1. Analyze Roosevelt’s foreign policy during World War II (e.g., “Four Freedoms” speech). (P, M)
      2. Explain the origins of American involvement in the war, with an emphasis on the events that precipitated the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the decision to join the Allies’ fight against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan for the freedom of those oppressed and attacked by these Axis nations. (P, M)
      3. Trace the response of the administration to atrocities against Jews and other groups. (P, S)
      4. Identify and locate on a map the Allied and Axis countries and the major theatres of the War.
      5. Explain U.S. and Allied wartime strategy, including the major battles of Midway, Normandy, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and the Battle of the Bulge. (G, P, M)
      6. Describe the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred Korematsu v. United States of America) and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens. (P, S)
      7. Identify the roles and sacrifices of individual American soldiers (more than 300,000 American soldiers died), as well as the unique contribu- tions of the special fighting forces (e.g., the Tuskegee Airmen, the 442nd Regimental Combat team, and the Navajo Code Talkers). (M, S)
      8. Examine and explain the entry of large numbers of women into the workforce, the roles and growing political demands of African Americans, and A. Philip Randolph and the efforts to eliminate employment discrimination. (P, S)2
      9. Trace the Manhattan Project, the decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the consequences of that decision. (G, P, M, S)
      10. Analyze the effect of massive aid given to Western Europe under the Marshall Plan to rebuild and the establishment of the United Nations.
      11. Outline international organizations and their importance in shaping modern Europe and maintaining peace and international order (e.g., International Declaration of Human Rights, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, or GATT). (P, E)
      12. Describe the major developments in aviation, weaponry, communication, and medicine, and the war’s impact on the location of American industry and use of resources. (E, I)
  • Cold War America to the New Millennium (1947-20010

    • 11.9. Broad Concept:

      Students trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy.

      1. Describe the role of military and other alliances, including NATO, SEATO, and the Alliance for Progress, in deterring communist aggression and maintaining security during the Cold War. (P, M)
      2. Explain how the world was divided into two realms, the free world and the communist world, led by two superpowers, and explain how these “worlds” competed with each other (spying, misinformation and disinformation campaigns, sabotage, and infiltration).
      3. Trace the roots of domestic anticommunism that grew out of a real threat from the Communists, including the origins and consequences of McCarthyism (e.g., Alger Hiss, J. Edgar Hoover, Senator Joseph McCarthy, and the Rosenbergs) and blacklisting. (P, S)
      4. Explain American involvement in the Berlin Blockade and its effect on Americans. (M, P)
      5. Trace America’s involvement in the Korean War. (P)
      6. Explain the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. (P)
      7. Explain and debate atomic testing in the American West, the mutually assured destruction doctrine, and disarmament policies. (P, M)
      8. Outline the Vietnam War, including diplomatic and military policies of presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon, and the rise of social activism. (P, M, S)
      9. Explain the Domino Theory, containment, and modern colonialism. (P, S)
      10. Describe Eisenhower’s response to the Soviets’ launching of Sputnik and the advances in the space race and exploration. (I)
    • 11.10. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze the economic boom and social transformation of America midcentury.

      1. Trace the impact of economic growth, declining poverty, and an increase in education levels, with particular attention on the growth of the service sector, white-collar, and professional sector jobs in business and government. (E, S)
      2. Explain the impact of the baby boomer generation and the growth of suburbs and home ownership. (S)
      3. Describe the effects of technological developments on society and the economy (e.g., the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology) and the increasing role of TV and mass media on the American home. (S, E, I)
      4. Describe the transformation of the Jazz Age into the rise of rhythm and blues, precursor to rock ’n’ roll and the emergence of a youth culture. (S)
      5. Describe Kennedy’s New Frontier program to improve education, provide health care for the elderly, end racial discrimination against African Americans, and create the Peace Corps, and the kind of work corps members are involved in around the globe. (P, S)
      6. Explain the rise of the Dixiecrats and the Southern Manifesto, which set the stage for the ultimate exodus of Southern Whites from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party. (P)
    • 11.11. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze the origins, goals, key events, and accomplishments of Civil Rights movement in the United States.

      1. Explain the roots of the 1950s and 1960s Civil Rights movement in the legal struggles and largely interracial coalition building of the 1940s (e.g., Congress of Racial Equality and NAACP Legal Defense Fund). (P, S)
      2. Describe the diffusion of the Civil Rights movement of African Americans from the churches of the rural South to the urban North, including the resistance to racial desegregation in Little Rock and Birmingham, and how their advances influenced the agendas, strategies, and effectiveness of the quests of Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans for civil rights and equal opportunities. (G, P)
      3. Describe the birth and the spread of the Chicano Movement, from New Mexico to Denver to Washington, DC. And analyze its moderate and more militant arms (e.g., Brown Berets, United Farm Workers, Mexican American Political Association, and Raza Unida). (G, P)
      4. Explain the role of institutions (e.g., the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAACP; the Warren Court; the Nation of Islam; the Congress of Racial Equality; the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; League of United Latin American Citizens, or LULAC; the National Council of La Raza, or NCLR; the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, or MALDEF; the National Puerto Rican Coalition; and the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee). (P)
      5. Describe the legacies and ideologies of key people (e.g., A. Philip Randolph, Dolores Huerta, Raúl Yzaguirre, Robert Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr., Ella Jo Baker, Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, and Malcolm X). (P)
      6. Outline the steps toward desegregation (e.g., Jackie Robinson and baseball, Harry Truman and the armed forces, and Adam Clayton Powell and Congress) and the integration of public schools, including Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, and Bolling v. Sharpe). (P, S)
      7. Trace the identification of rights of immigrant populations (non-English speakers) by examining a series of legal decisions from the Supreme Court (e.g., Hernández v. Texas, Méndez v. Westminster, Plyler v. Doe, Lau v. Nichols, and Keyes v. Denver). (P, S)
      8. Explain the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the 1965 Voting Rights Act and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, the 24th Amendment, with an emphasis on equality of access to education and to the political process. (P, S)
      9. Describe the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965 and the effect of abolishing the national origins quotas on the demographic makeup of America. (S, P, E)
      10. Analyze the women’s rights movement launched in the 1960s, including differing perspectives on the roles of women, the National Organization of Women, and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). (P, S)
    • 11.12. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze important events and trends in the 1960s and 1970s.

      1. Explain the effect that the assassination of President Kennedy had on the nation. (P, S)
      2. List and identify the major components of Johnson’s Great Society programs: aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, the war on poverty, crime prevention, and removal of obstacles to the right to vote. (P, S)
      3. Describe the Southern Strategy and the success of Nixon’s appeal to the silent majority. (P)
      4. Analyze the rise of social activism and the antiwar and countercultural movements. (P, S)
      5. Describe the dimensions of the energy crisis, the creation of a national energy policy, and the emergence of environmentalism (e.g., creation of the Environmental Protection Agency; Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring; disasters such as Love Canal, Three Mile Island, and the Exxon Valdez). (G, P, S)
      6. Explain the Watergate scandal (including the Supreme Court case, U.S. v. Nixon), the changing role of media and journalism in the United States as a result, and the controversies surrounding Ford’s pardon of Nixon. (P)
      7. Explain the 1972 Church Senate Commission and the uncovering of the FBI’s Counterintelligence (COINTELPRO) program of domestic spying on black and leftist organizations. (P)
      8. Identify scientific, technological, and medical advances (e.g., VCR technology, jumbo jets, DNA and genetic engineering, and the first test tube baby). (I)
      9. Analyze the women’s rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s (e.g., formation of NOW and the debate over the Equal Rights Amendment). (P, S)
      10. Describe the Black Power and black studies movements (e.g., the Black Panthers; Organization Us; black-themed film, music, and art; and the birth of academic black studies). (P, S)
    • 11.13. Broad Concept:

      Students describe important events and trends of the late 20th century.

      1. 1. Trace the computer and technological revolution of the 1980s and 1990s (e.g., World Wide Web, e-mail, the Internet, and cell phone). (I, E)
      2. Identify recent scientific and medical advances (e.g., Human Genome Project), and explain how medical advances and improved living standards have brought significant increases in life expectancy. (E, I, S)
      3. Explain the roots and ultimate success of the antiapartheid movement (boycotts, arrests, and organizing among African Americans and others). (P, S)
      4. Explain the revitalization of the conservative movement during Reagan’s tenure as president, including the creation of the Moral Majority and the rise of Evangelical Protestants. (P, R)
      5. Describe the major issues in the immigration debate, such as the rising numbers of Asians and Hispanics; the impact of legal and illegal immigrants on the U.S. economy; and the delivery of social services, including bilingual education and ESL programs, to non-English speaking groups. (S)
      6. Trace and explain the weakening of the nuclear family, two-earner families, and the rise in divorce rates. (S)
      7. Analyze the social and economic effects of various health crises, including increasing obesity and the AIDS epidemic. (S, E)
      8. Analyze the impact on society of the incarceration of large numbers (disproportionate to their percentage of the general population) of African Americans and Latinos. (S)
      9. Explain the Supreme Court case Bush v. Gore. (P)
      10. Examine the emergence of rap or hip-hop music and its influence on urban culture. (S)
      11. Describe the increasing globalization of the American economy. (E)
    • 11.14. Broad Concept:

      Students analyze the important foreign policies of and events that took place during the administrations of presidents Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush.

      1. Analyze the role of the Reagan administration in ending the Cold War, and describe the administration’s anticommunist foreign and defense policies. (P)
      2. Explain the major goals of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and its impact on the U.S., Mexican, and Canadian economies. (P, E)
      3. Describe George H.W. Bush leading the U.N. coalition in the 1990–1991 Gulf War and his decision to liberate Kuwait but keep Saddam Hussein in power. (P, M)
      4. Debate the U.S. Middle East policy and its strategic, political, and economic interests, including those related to the Gulf War and the attempts to negotiate a settlement to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. (G, P, M)
      5. Explain American intervention in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Kosovo. (P)
      6. Explain the reasons for and impact of President Clinton’s renewed interest in U.S.-African relations.
      7. Describe relations between the United States and Mexico in the 20th century, including key economic, political, immigration, and environmental issues (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement, or NAFTA). (P, E)
      8. Describe U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America, as it concerns the drug trade and the spread of U.S.-style democracy. (P, M)
      9. Describe America’s response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, including the intervention in Afghanistan and invasion of Iraq. (P, M)

    In addition to the standards for grades 9 through 12, students demonstrate the following intellectual, reasoning, reflection, and research skills.:

    Historical Chronology and Interpretation

    1. Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
    2. Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times, understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same, and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.
    3. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
    4. Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.
    5. Students distinguish intended from unintended consequences.
    6. Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than present-day norms and values.
    7. Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.
    8. Students conduct cost-benefit analyses and apply basic economic indicators to analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.

    Geographic Skills

    1. Students understand the influence of physical and human geographic factors on the evolution of significant historic events and movements. They apply the geographic viewpoint to local, regional, and world policies and problems.
    2. Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods. Identify major patterns of human migration, both in the past and present.
    3. Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions. They identify the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth’s cultural mosaics.
    4. Students evaluate ways in which technology has expanded the capability of humans to modify the physical environment and the ability of humans to mitigate the effect of natural disasters.
    5. Students hypothesize about the impact of push-pull factors on human migration in selected regions and about the changes in these factors over time. Students develop maps of human migration and settlement patterns at different times in history and compare them to the present.
    6. Students note significant changes in the territorial sovereignty that took place in the history units being studied.
    7. Students study current events to explain how human actions modify the physical environment and how the physical environment affects human systems (e.g., natural disasters, climate, and resources). They explain the resulting environmental policy issues.
    8. Students explain how different points of view influence policies relating to the use and management of Earth’s resources.
    9. Students identify patterns and networks of economic interdependence in the contemporary world.

    Historical Research, Evidence, and Point of View

    1. Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations (e.g., appeal to false authority, unconfirmed citations, ad hominem argument, appeal to popular opinion).
    2. Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations.
    3. Students evaluate major debates among historians concerning alternative interpretations of the past, including an analysis of authors’ use of evidence and the distinctions between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications.
    4. Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations.