DC: Tenth Grade Standards
(Note: In 2011, DC public schools began transitioning to the Common Core State Standards.)
World History and Geography II: The Industrial Revolution to the Modern World
Era VI: Age of Revolutions to 1914
10.1. Broad Concept:
Students analyze the emergence and effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States.
- Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of cities. (G)
- Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism (e.g., Adam Smith, Robert Owen, and Karl Marx). (P, E)
- Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature (e.g., the poetry of William Blake and William Wordsworth), social criticism (e.g., the novels of Charles Dickens), and the move away from Classicism in Europe. (I)
- Describe the political, social, and industrial revolution in Japan (Meiji Restoration) and its growing role in international affairs. (P, S, E)
- Explain how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Ellijah McCoy, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, and Thomas Edison). (S, I, E)
- Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade, problems caused by harsh working conditions, and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement. (E, S)
- Explain the vast increases in productivity and wealth, growth of a middle class, and general rise in the standard of living and life span. (E)
10.2. Broad Concept:
Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of 19th-century European imperialism.
- Explain the role of religious wars in Europe and the search for natural resources and new markets as prelude to the Berlin Conference. (P, M, S)
- Describe the Berlin Conference and the rise of modern colonialism in the 19th century. (P, S)
- Describe the locations of colonies established by such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States. (G)
- Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonialism (e.g., the role played by national security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and the missionary impulse; and material issues, such as land, resources, and technology). (G, P, S)
- Explain the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule. (S)
10.3. Broad Concept:
Students describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world some through constitutional devolution of power and others as a result of armed revolution and the culture of classes because of different worldviews.
- Analyze Africa’s interaction with imperialism (Zulu Wars, Mahdist Movement, Ashanti Wars, and African resistance and/or collaboration throughout the continent). (G, M, P, S)
- Explain the importance of Ethiopia’s Battle of Adowa and the defeat of Italian invaders to remain independent. (G, M, P, S)
- Explain the growing Western encroachment on China’s sovereignty, the Boxer Rebellion, and Sun Yat-Sen and the 1911 Republican Revolution. (G, P, S)
- Explain the transfer in 1858 of government to Great Britain on the Indian Subcontinent following the Sepoy Rebellion. (G, P, M, S)
- Describe American imperialism of the Philippines and the fight for freedom in the Philippine-American War led by Emilio Aquinaldo. (G, P, M, S)
- Explain the military interventions of the United States in Central America and the Caribbean, the subsequent occupation of some of the ter- ritories, and local resistance to growing U.S. influence, as evidenced in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Panama, and Nicaragua. (G, P, M, I)
- Explain the desire for land reform and democratic participation that resulted in the movements led by Emiliano Zapata, Francisco Madero, Pancho Villa, and Venustiano Carranza in Mexico; César Augusto Sandino in Nicaragua; Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala; and Farabundo Martí in El Salvador. (G, P, M, S, I)
- Explain the emergence of populist and democratic leaders in Latin America, such as Juan Perón, Getulio Vargas, José Figueres, Luis Muñoz Marín, and Rómulo Betancourt. (G, P, M, S, I)
Era VII: The Great Wars to 1945
10.4. Broad Concept:
Students analyze the causes and course of the First World War.
- Analyze the arguments for entering into war presented by leaders from all sides of the Great War. (P, M)
- Outline the role of political and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, domestic discontent, disorder, propaganda, and national- ism in mobilizing the civilian population in support of “total war.” (P, S, E)
- Identify and explain the principal theaters of battle, major turning points, and the importance of geographic factors in military decisions and outcomes (e.g., topography, waterways, distance, and climate). (G, M)
- Describe the use and abuse of soldiers from colonies to fight in the war. (S)
- Explain how the Russian Revolution and the entry of the United States affected the course and outcome of the war. (P, M)
- Describe human rights violations and genocide, including the Armenian genocide in Turkey. (P, S)
- Explain the nature of the war and its human costs (military and civilian) on all sides of the conflict, including unprecedented loss of life from prolonged trench warfare. (S, M)
10.5. Broad Concept:
Students analyze the long-term military, economic, and political effects of the World War I.
- Describe advances in tank and aerial warfare, the belief that the “Great War” would end war, and disarmament movements. (M, P)
- Describe the effects of the war and resulting peace treaties on population movement, the international economy, and shifts in the geographic and political borders of Europe and the Middle East. (G, P, E)
- Analyze the aims and negotiating roles of world leaders, including Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and the causes and effects of the United States’ rejection of the League of Nations on world politics. (P)
- Describe the conflicting aims and aspirations of the conferees at Versailles and the Versailles treaty’s economic and moral effects on Germany.
- Describe how the war was an incentive for renewed Western imperialism in Africa and Asia as European nations turned to their colonies to help them rebuild. (P, S)
- Analyze how social and economic conditions of colonial rule, as well as ideals of liberal democracy and national autonomy, contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia. (P, S)
- Analyze how the World War I settlement contributed to the rise of the first Pan-African Congress and the birth of the modern Pan-African movement.
- Analyze how the World War I settlement contributed to the rise of both pan-Arabism and nationalist struggles for independence in the Middle East.
- Assess the challenges to democratic government in Latin America in the context of class divisions, economic dependency, and U.S. intervention.
- Explain the widespread disillusionment with prewar institutions, authorities, and values that resulted in a void that was later filled by totalitarians. (P)
- Analyze the objectives and achievements of women’s political movements in the context of World War I and its aftermath. (P, S)
- Explain the influence of World War I on literature, art, and intellectual life (e.g., Pablo Picasso, the Jazz Era music of the Harlem Hellfighters 369th Regiment Band and James Reese Europe; the “lost generation” of Gertrude Stein and Ernest Hemingway). (I)
10.6. Broad Concept:
Students analyze the rise of fascism and totalitarianism after World War I.
- Identify the causes and consequences of the Bolshevik Revolution and Civil War in Russia, including Lenin’s use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain control (e.g., the Gulag). (P, M)
- Trace Stalin’s rise to power in the Soviet Union and the connection between economic policies, political policies, the absence of a free press, and systematic violations of human rights (e.g., the Terror Famine in Ukraine). (P, E)
- Analyze the assumption of power by Adolf Hitler in Germany, the resulting acts of oppression and aggression, and the human costs of the totalitarian regime. (P, S)
- Describe Mussolini’s rise to power in Italy and his creation of a fascist state through the use of state terror and propaganda. (P, S).
10.7. Broad Concept:
Students describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and they analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression.
- Explain the impact of restrictive monetary and trade policies. (E)
- Describe the collapse of international economies in 1929 that led to the Great Depression, including the relationships that had been forged between the U.S. and European economies after World War I. (E)
- Describe issues of unemployment and inflation. (E, S)
- Describe how economic instability led to political instability in many parts of the world and helped to give rise to dictatorial regimes such as Adolf Hitler’s in Germany and the military’s in Japan. (P, E)
- Describe the influence of the ideas of key economists (e.g., John Maynard Keynes, Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek, and Milton Friedman). (E)
10.8. Broad Concept:
Students analyze the causes and course of World War II.
- Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s, including the 1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities in China, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, German militarism, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939. (G, P, M)
- Explain the role of appeasement, nonintervention (isolationism), and the domestic distractions in Europe and the United States prior to the outbreak of World War II. (P)
- Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers and the major turning points of the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key strategic decisions, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on the importance of geographic factors. (G, P, M)
- Describe the political, diplomatic, and military leaders during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Douglas MacArthur, and Dwight Eisenhower). (P, M)
- Explain the background of the Holocaust (including its roots in 19th century ideas about race and nation); the dehumanization of the Jews through law, attitude, and actions such as badging, ghettoization, and killing processes; and how the Nazi persecution of gypsies, homosexu- als, and others who failed to meet the Aryan ideal.
- Describe the human costs of the war, with particular attention to the civilian and military losses in Russia, Germany, Britain, the United States, China, and Japan. (S, M)
10.9. Broad Concept:
Students analyze the long-term military, economic, and political effects of the World War II.
- Identify the goals, leadership, and postwar plans of the principal allied leaders: the Atlantic Conference (The Four Freedoms), Yalta, and the Potsdam Conference. (P)
- Identify the renewed call for African independence at the fifth Pan-African Congress (Manchester, England, 1945). (P, I)
- Describe reasons for the establishment of the United Nations in 1945, and summarize the main ideas of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and their impact on the globalization of diplomacy and conflict and the balance of power. (P, I)
- Describe the nature of reconstruction in Asia and Europe after 1945 (e.g., purpose of Marshall Plan, creation of NATO, and division of Germany). (P, E, S)
- Explain the significance and effects of the location and establishment of Israel on world affairs. (G, P)
- Describe the functions of the Warsaw Pact, SEATO, NATO, the Organization of American States, the West Indies Federation, and the Bandung Movement of Non-Aligned Afro-Asian Countries. (P)
- Compare the economic and military power shifts caused by the war, including the Yalta Pact, the development of nuclear weapons, Soviet control over Eastern European nations, and the economic recoveries of Germany and Japan. (P, M, E)
Era VIII: The Cold War to the Present
10.10. Broad Concept:
Students explain the causes, major events, and global consequences of the Cold War.
- Describe Soviet aggression in Eastern Europe, the 1956 uprising in Hungary, conflicts involving Berlin and the Berlin Wall, and the “Prague Spring.” (G, P, M)
- Describe the Soviet-U.S. competition in the Middle East and Africa, including the conflicts in Afghanistan, the Congo, Angola, and Mozambique. (G, P)
- Describe the Soviet-U.S. competition in Southeast Asia, including the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the intervention of Communist China. (G, P, M)
- Describe the conflicts involving Latin America, including the Cuban Missile Crisis and U.S. support of the Contras in Nicaragua. (G, P)
- Explain the impact of the defense buildups and the impact of the arms control agreements, including the ABM and SALT treaties. (P, M)
10.11. Broad Concept:
Students analyze major developments in Africa since World War II.
- Identify Africa’s natural features, resources, and population patterns. (G)
- Analyze national movements that occurred throughout Africa post-World War II against various European colonial powers, with particular attention to the role of veterans, labor unions, and the Western-educated elite. (P)
- Explain the Pan-Africanism movement, the formation of the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), and various independ- ence movements (e.g., Congo conflict and Patrice Lumumba; struggle over Angola and Mozambique; and the Zimbabwe War of Independence) and African American support (e.g., the Council on African Affairs and the African Liberation Support Committee). (P, S)
- Explain the influence of newly independent African Nations, such as Ghana, Nigeria, and Egypt, on U.S. domestic policy in the U.S. Civil Rights movement (e.g., Kwame Nkrumah’s relationship with Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X; the large expatriate community of African Americans in 1960s–present Ghana). (P)
- Explain the fight against and dismantling of the apartheid system in South Africa and evolution from white minority government, including the role of Nelson Mandela, the African National Congress, and the role of African Americans, such as Randall Robinson, and the TransAfrica in ending apartheid. (P, S)
- Explain why military regimes or one-party states replaced parliamentary-style governments throughout much of Africa. (P, M)
- Outline important trends in the region today with respect to individual freedom and democracy. (P, S)
- Describe the growing relationship between African Americans and African countries (e.g., Ghana, South Africa, Nigeria, and Senegal). (P, S)
- Describe the ethnic struggles in Rwanda, Burundi, and the Sudan. (P, S)
- Explain agricultural changes and new patterns of employment, including massive overseas migration. (G, E)
- Describe the challenges in the region, including its geopolitical, cultural, military, and economic significance and the international relationships in which it is involved (e.g., the civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo). (P, M, S, E)
- Analyze the social and economic effects of the spread of AIDS and other diseases. (S, E)
10.12. Broad Concept:
Students analyze major developments in Asia since World War II.
- Identify Asia’s natural features, resources, and population patterns. (G)
- Analyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Zedong, and the triumph of the Communist Revolution in China. (P, M)
- Describe the consequences of the political and economic upheavals in China, including the Great Leap Forward (famine), the Cultural Revolution (terror of Red Guards), the Tiananmen Square uprising, and relations with Tibet and Taiwan). (P, M, E)
- Describe the reasons for and the effects of the partition of the Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947, as well as the exchange of more than 12 million Hindus and Muslims. (G, P, R)
- Explain the historical factors that created a stable democratic government in India and the role of Mohandas Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Indira Gandhi in its development. (P)
- Describe the new constitution and Bill of Rights promulgated in Japan in 1947 and their connection to the U.S. Constitution. (P)
- Describe the political, social, and economic problems of new nationhood in Southeast Asia; and the legacy of the Cold War on Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan; and the unresolved political problems with the Korean Peninsula and between Taiwan and China.
- Explain why the Chinese and Indian governments have sought to control population growth, and the methods they use. (S)
- Outline the postwar economic rise of many Asian countries, including Japan’s adaptation of western technology and industrial growth, China’s post-Mao economic modernization under Deng Xiaoping, and India’s economic growth through market-oriented reforms as well as the economic growth of Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. (E, I)
- Describe the economic growth and subsequent challenges in much of Southeast Asia.
10.13. Broad Concept:
Students analyze the major developments in Europe since World War II.
- Identify the weaknesses of the Soviet command economy, the burdens of Soviet military commitments, and its eventual collapse. (E, M))
- Describe the uprisings in Poland (1952), Hungary (1956), and Czechoslovakia (1968) and those countries’ resurgence in the 1970s and 1980s as people in the former Soviet satellites sought freedom from Soviet control. (P, M)
- Describe the role of various leaders in transforming the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (e.g., Mikhail Gorbachev, Vaclav Havel, Pope John Paul II, Andrei Sakharov, Alexander Solzhenitsyn and Lech Walesa). (P)
- Outline the consequences of the Soviet Union’s breakup, including the development of market economies, political and social instability, ethnic struggles, oil and gas politics, dangers of the spread of nuclear technology and other technologies of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist organizations. (P, S, E)
- Explain how most Western European heads of state, especially within the 12-member European Community, worked toward creating greater European economic and political unity.
10.14. Broad Concept:
Students analyze the major developments in Latin America since World War II.
- Identify and list the climate and major natural resources of Central America and their relationship to the economy of the region. (G)
- Explain the struggle for economic autonomy, political sovereignty, and social justice that led to revolutions in Guatemala, Cuba, and Nicaragua and armed insurgencies and civil war in many parts of Central America. (P, M)
- Describe Cuba as a theater of the Cold War, including the role of Fidel Castro and the Cuban Missile Crisis. (G, P, M)
- Trace the rise of military dictatorships in Argentina, Brazil, and Guatemala and the recent shift to democracy. (P)
- Analyze the role of liberation theology in Latin America. (S, R)
- Describe the economic crises, soaring national debts, and the intervention of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. (P, E)
- Trace the importance of trade and regional trade treaties (e.g., NAFTA, MERCOSUR, CAFTA, and CARICOM). (G, E)
- Describe the impact of drug trafficking on and movements of people to the United States, their monetary and affective connections to their homelands, and return migration to Latin America. (G, S)
- Describe the return to populism and socialism in Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile. (P)
10.15. Broad Concept:
Students analyze the major developments in the Middle East since World War II.
- Identify the weakness and fragility of the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and others. (P)
- Explain the United Nations’ vote in 1947 to partition the western part of the Palestine Mandate into two independent countries, the rejec- tion by surrounding Arab countries of the U.N. decision to establish Israel, the rise of the Palestinian Liberation Organization, and the inva- sion of Israel by Arab countries. (P, M)
- Trace the attempts to secure peace between Palestinians and Israelis. (P)
- Explain the Iranian Revolution of 1978–1979 after Khomeini, the Iranian hostage crisis, and more recent nuclear issues. (P)
- Trace the defeat of the Soviet Union and the rise of the Mujahideen and the Taliban in Afghanistan. (P, M)
- Trace the origins of the Persian Gulf War and the postwar actions of Saddam Hussein. (P, M)
- Describe Islamic revivalism and radicalism, including Muslim communities in Europe. (P, S)
- Explain the increase in terrorist attacks against Israel, Europe, and the United States. (P)
- Describe America’s response to and the wider international consequences of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, including the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq. (P, M)
10.16. Broad Concept:
Students analyze aspects and impacts of globalization since World War II.
- Explain the long postwar peace between democratic nations in the world. (P)
- Identify recent scientific, technological, and medical advances (e.g., Quantum Theory, nuclear energy, space exploration, polio vaccine, discovery of Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, or DNA). (I)
- Describe the increasing integration of economies (trade, capital movements) around the world and the crises in the emerging markets in the 1990s. (G, E)
- Describe the movement of people (labor) to find better employment opportunities and the transfer of skills back to developing countries (e.g., India). (G, S, I)
- Describe the spread of knowledge and information across international borders fueled by advances in electronic communications. (G, E, I)
- Explain how medical advances and improved living standards have brought strong increases in life expectancy. (E, S)
- Explain how gaps between rich and poor countries, and rich and poor people within countries, have grown, and describe the policies that are designed to alleviate poverty. (P, S)
In addition to the standards for grades 9 through 12, students demonstrate the following intellectual, reasoning, reflection, and research skills.:
Historical Chronology and Interpretation
- Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
- Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times, understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same, and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.
- Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
- Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.
- Students distinguish intended from unintended consequences.
- Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than present-day norms and values.
- Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.
- Students conduct cost-benefit analyses and apply basic economic indicators to analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.
- Students understand the influence of physical and human geographic factors on the evolution of significant historic events and movements. They apply the geographic viewpoint to local, regional, and world policies and problems.
- Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods. Identify major patterns of human migration, both in the past and present.
- Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions. They identify the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth’s cultural mosaics.
- Students evaluate ways in which technology has expanded the capability of humans to modify the physical environment and the ability of humans to mitigate the effect of natural disasters.
- Students hypothesize about the impact of push-pull factors on human migration in selected regions and about the changes in these factors over time. Students develop maps of human migration and settlement patterns at different times in history and compare them to the present.
- Students note significant changes in the territorial sovereignty that took place in the history units being studied.
- Students study current events to explain how human actions modify the physical environment and how the physical environment affects human systems (e.g., natural disasters, climate, and resources). They explain the resulting environmental policy issues.
- Students explain how different points of view influence policies relating to the use and management of Earth’s resources.
- Students identify patterns and networks of economic interdependence in the contemporary world.
Historical Research, Evidence, and Point of View
- Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations (e.g., appeal to false authority, unconfirmed citations, ad hominem argument, appeal to popular opinion).
- Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations.
- Students evaluate major debates among historians concerning alternative interpretations of the past, including an analysis of authors’ use of evidence and the distinctions between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications.
- Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations.