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Colorado: 8th-Grade Standards

CO.1. Standard: History

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Develop an understanding of how people view, construct, and interpret history
  2. Analyze key historical periods and patterns of change over time within and across nations and cultures

CO.1.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Formulate appropriate hypotheses about United States history based on a variety of historical sources and perspectives

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Use and interpret documents and other relevant primary and secondary sources pertaining to United States history from multiple perspectives
  • b. Analyze evidence from multiple sources including those with conflicting accounts about specific events in United States history
  • c. Critique data for point of view, historical context, distortion, or propaganda and relevance to historical inquiry
  • d. Construct a written historical argument on the use or understanding of primary and secondary sources

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How has the Declaration of Independence influenced other nations?
  2. Which primary documents have had the greatest impact on the people of the United States?
  3. Should and can historians be completely impartial when writing about history?
  4. What makes history different from literature?
  5. Was it "Westward Expansion" or "Territorial Convergence?"
  6. What makes a good historical question?
Relevance and Application:
  1. The context and content from the past are used to make connections to the present such as connecting the Civil War to current social and political issues, and the boom and bust cycle of economics with the Gold Rush and railroads
  2. The historical method of inquiry is used to interpret and refine history and serves as a model for inquiry. For example, historians and communities preserve historical documents, artifacts, and buildings.
Nature of History:
  1. Historical thinkers evaluate historical sources for purpose, audience, point of view, context, and authenticity.
  2. Historical thinkers use primary and secondary sources to evaluate and create hypotheses and interpretations of historical events defended with supporting evidence.

CO.1.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • The historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas and themes from the origins of the American Revolution through Reconstruction and their relationships with one another

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Determine and explain the historical context of key people and events from the origins of the American Revolution through Reconstruction including the examination of different perspectives
  • b. Evaluate continuity and change ove rthe course of United States history by examining various eras and determining major sources of conflict and compromise
  • c. Examine factors that motivated the military and economic expansion from the American Revolution through Reconstruction
  • d. Evaluate the impact of different factors – on topics to include but not limited to gender, age, ethnicity and class– on groups and individuals in this time period and the impact of these groups and individuals on the events of the time period
  • e. Analyze causes and effects of major conflicts from the origins of the American Revolution through Reconstruction
  • f. Analyze ideas that are critical to the understanding of American history and give examples of the ideals involved in major events and movements. Topics to include but not limited to representative democracy, federalism, capitalism, abolition, temperance, nativism, and expansionism

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How have the basic values and principles of American democracy changed over time and in what ways have they been preserved?
  2. To what extent are the ideas of the American Revolution and the United States Constitution still affecting the world today?
  3. What would the United States be like if the British had won the American Revolution?
  4. To what extent was the Civil War an extension of the American Revolution?
Relevance and Application:
  1. The context and information from the past are used to make connections and inform decisions in the present. For example, the concepts of liberty continue to be defended by lawyers and citizens while the rights and responsibilities of citizens continue to evolve through the work of policy makers, legislators, judges, lawyers, and individuals.
  2. Technological developments continue to evolve and impact the present. For example, communication media has evolved from printing, telegraph, early photography and continues to continues to evolve, in transportation of scientific discoveries)
Nature of History:
  1. Historical thinkers analyze patterns and themes throughout time.
  2. Historical thinkers study places and events from multiple perspectives in a way that leads to interpretations based on available evidence.
  3. Historical thinkers use chronology to organize time.
  4. Historical thinkers examine sources for audience, purpose, point of view, historical context, and propaganda.

CO.2. Standard: Geography

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Develop spatial understanding, perspectives, and personal connections to the world
  2. Examine places and regions and the connections among them

CO.2.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Use geographic tools to analyze patterns in human and physical systems

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Interpret maps and other geographic tools as a primary source to analyze a historic issue
  • b. Describe the nature and spatial distribution of cultural patterns
  • c. Recognize the patterns and networks of economic interdependence
  • d. Explain the establishment of human settlements in relationship to physical attributes and important regional connections
  • e. Calculate and analyze population trends

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How has human settlement influenced changes in physical systems and culture?
  2. How can geographic tools help explore patterns in human and physical systems?
  3. How have people and the environment interacted to produce changes over time?
  4. How is human activity limited by the environment?
  5. How has the environment influenced human activity?
Relevance and Application:
  1. The analysis and understanding of patterns found in human and physical systems helps to explain impacts on society such as the impact of migration patterns on regions.
  2. Technology is used to find, plot, and express the patterns found in human and physical systems that affect society such as population density and growth analyses, impact of deforestation, and human and environmental changes that affect world health.
Nature of Geography:
  1. Spatial thinkers use geographic tools to discover and investigate geographic patterns.

CO.2.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Conflict and cooperation occur over space and resources

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Analyze how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape patterns of human population, interdependence, cooperation and conflict
  • b. Compare how differing geographic perspectives apply to a historic issue
  • c. Interpret from a geographic perspective the expansion of the United States by addressing issues of land, security, and sovereignty

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How will the location of resources lead to cooperation or conflict in the future?
  2. How has conflict over space and resources influenced human migration?
  3. How have differing perspectives regarding resource and land use lead to cooperative policies or conflict?
  4. How would human settlement patterns be different if people did not trade resources with others?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Nations are working cooperatively or are engaged in conflict over the division and control of land, water, and other resources.
  2. Individuals and groups make choices regarding the use of space and resources in society. For example, various nations and groups fought over the resources of the United States and businesses and individuals have raced for land and resources throughout history including the Gold Rush and the Western land rush.
Nature of Geography:
  1. Spatial thinkers study how factors influence the allocation and use of space and resources.
  2. Spatial thinkers study how different perspectives affect cooperation and conflict over space and resources.

CO.3. Standard: Economics

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Understand the allocation of scarce resources in societies through analysis of individual choice, market interaction, and public policy
  2. Acquire the knowledge and economic reasoning skills to make sound financial decisions (PFL)

CO.3.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Economic freedom, including free trade, is important for economic growth

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Give examples of international differences in resources, productivity, and prices that provide a basis for international trade
  • b. Describe the factors that lead to a nation having a comparative and absolute advantage in trade
  • c. Explain effects of domestic policies on international trade
  • d. Identify examples to illustrate that consumers ultimately determine what is produced in a market economy
  • e. Explain why nations often restrict trade by using quotas, tariffs, and non-tariff barriers

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. How do societies benefit from trade and exchange?
  2. Why is it important for nations to control trade and exchange?
  3. What are the benefits and challenges of trade at the international, national, state, local, and individual levels?
  4. How does where and how you purchase products affect the social, economic, and environmental conditions?
Relevance and Application:
  1. The understanding of trade and collaboration within the market economy is important to business and individual economic success.
  2. Analysis of the positive and negative impacts of trade agreements is critical to a nation’s economy. For example, the Santa Fe Trail and the opening of trade with Japan in American history.
  3. Identification of the role of information as a good or service and its influence on production, trade, income, and technological advances aids businesses to operate efficiently.
  4. Innovation and invention create absolute or comparative advantage in trade
Nature of Economics:
  1. Economic thinkers explore the patterns and development of the interconnected nature of trade.
  2. Economic thinkers analyze the components of economic growth.

CO.3.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Manage personal credit and debt (PFL)

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Identify and differentiate between purposes and reasons for debt
  • b. Analyze benefits and costs of credit and debt
  • c. Compare sources of credit
  • d. Describe the components of a credit history

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. Why is understanding credit and debt important?
  2. How do you manage debt?
  3. Why is it important to know about different types of credit?
  4. How do you view debt and credit?
  5. When is debt useful?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Technology aids in the research of purchases to find the lowest available cost, compare sources of credit, and track debt.
  2. Analysis of the cost of borrowing helps to determine how to manage debt for such items as higher education and automobile purchases.
  3. Technology is used to research credit history, credit scores, and the variables that impact a credit history to protect personal financial security.
Nature of Economics:
  1. Financially responsible individuals manage debt.
  2. Economic thinkers gather data regarding trends in production, use of resources, and consumer choices.
  3. Financially responsible individuals understand the responsibilities associated with the use of credit.

CO.4. Standard: Civics

Prepared Graduates:

  1. Analyze origins, structure, and functions of governments and their impacts on societies and citizens
  2. Analyze and practice rights, roles, and responsibilities of citizens

CO.4.1. Concepts and skills students master:

  • Analyze elements of continuity and change in the United States government and the role of citizens over time

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Describe instances in which major political, social, economic, or cultural changes occurred and the reasons for the changes
  • b. Analyze the changing definition of citizenship and give examples of the expansion of rights
  • c. Describe examples of citizens and groups who have influenced change in United States government and politics
  • d. Evaluate the result of various strategies for political change over time
  • e. Analyze primary sources supporting democratic freedoms and the founding of our government. Documents to include but not limited to the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights and explain how they provide for both continuity and change
  • f. Examine ways citizens may effectively voice opinions, monitor government, and bring about change nationally

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. What is a patriot?
  2. What are the various roles of government?
  3. How have various people from different eras in our nation’s history promoted change in the face of opposition and what democratic principles were advanced?
  4. How have the meanings of American ideals remained the same and changed over time?
Relevance and Application:
  1. There are elements that contribute to continuity and change in order to maintain a free and democratic society. For example, the right to vote is fundamental in society, but who can vote has changed over time.
  2. Individuals work collaboratively to research and advocate ideas regarding important issues facing society such as suffrage, the rights of workers, and the rights of children.>/li>
Nature of Civics:
  1. Responsible community members read diverse sources to create understanding, critically analyze issues, and place them in historical context.
  2. Responsible community members understand and discuss the dynamic nature of national government and the individual’s role in the process.

CO.4.2. Concepts and skills students master:

  • The place of law in a constitutional system

Evidence Outcomes

Students can:
  • a. Discern various types of law
  • b. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of rule of law
  • c. Describe and engage in various means of conflict management
  • d. Explain the role and importance of the Constitution
  • e. Discuss the tensions between individual rights, state law, and national law
  • f. Explain how state and federal court power of judicial review is reflected in the United States form of constitutional government
  • g. Use a variety of resources to identify and evaluate issues that involve civic responsibility, individual rights, and the common good

21st-century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Inquiry Questions:
  1. What is the "common good?"
  2. What are key court cases and historical events in the development of the United States?
  3. What are examples of successful and unsuccessful conflict resolution in United States history and why?
  4. How has the United States balanced individual rights and law?
  5. Which is more effective, the rule of law or the rule of man? Why?
Relevance and Application:
  1. Laws interact and may remain the same or change over time. For example, in a society with laws, leadership can change but the law remains the same.
  2. Laws allow understanding of the proper course of action and consequences for not adhering to the law. For example, safety belts are required in automobiles for safety reasons and various government agencies regulate industries to protect the common good.
Nature of Civics:
  1. Responsible community members exercise their rights and responsibilities to effect change.
  2. Responsible community members understand rule of law and judicial review as components of the judicial system.
 
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