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California: 6th-Grade Standards

  • CA.6.1. Content Standard: World History and Geography

    Ancient Civilizations: Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of the early physical and cultural development of humankind from the Paleolithic era to the agricultural revolution.

    • 6.1.1. Performance Standard:

      Describe the hunter-gatherer societies, including the development of tools and the use of fire.

    • 6.1.2. Performance Standard:

      Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions of the world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments.

    • 6.1.3. Performance Standard:

      Discuss the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter.

  • CA.6.2. Content Standard: World History and Geography

    Ancient Civilizations: Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush.

    • 6.2.1. Performance Standard:

      Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical settings that supported permanent settlement and early civilizations.

    • 6.2.2. Performance Standard:

      Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power.

    • 6.2.3. Performance Standard:

      Understand the relationship between religion and the social and political order in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

    • 6.2.4. Performance Standard:

      Know the significance of Hammurabi's Code.

    • 6.2.5. Performance Standard:

      Discuss the main features of Egyptian art and architecture.

    • 6.2.6. Performance Standard:

      Describe the role of Egyptian trade in the eastern Mediterranean and Nile valley.

    • 6.2.7. Performance Standard:

      Understand the significance of Queen Hatshepsut and Ramses the Great.

    • 6.2.8. Performance Standard:

      Identify the location of the Kush civilization and describe its political, commercial, and cultural relations with Egypt.

    • 6.2.9. Performance Standard:

      Trace the evolution of language and its written forms.

  • CA.6.3. Content Standard: World History and Geography

    Ancient Civilizations: Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Ancient Hebrews.

    • 6.3.1. Performance Standard:

      Describe the origins and significance of Judaism as the first monotheistic religion based on the concept of one God who sets down moral laws for humanity.

    • 6.3.2. Performance Standard: Identify the sources of the ethical teachings and central beliefs of Judaism (the Hebrew Bible, the Commentaries)

      belief in God, observance of law, practice of the concepts of righteousness and justice, and importance of study; and describe how the ideas of the Hebrew traditions are reflected in the moral and ethical traditions of Western civilization.

    • 6.3.3. Performance Standard:

      Explain the significance of Abraham, Moses, Naomi, Ruth, David, and Yohanan ben Zaccai in the development of the Jewish religion.

    • 6.3.4. Performance Standard:

      Discuss the locations of the settlements and movements of Hebrew peoples, including the Exodus and their movement to and from Egypt, and outline the significance of the Exodus to the Jewish and other people.

    • 6.3.5. Performance Standard:

      Discuss how Judaism survived and developed despite the continuing dispersion of much of the Jewish population from Jerusalem and the rest of Israel after the destruction of the second Temple in A.D. 70.

  • CA.6.4. Content Standard: World History and Geography

    Ancient Civilizations: Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Ancient Greece.

    • 6.4.1. Performance Standard:

      Discuss the connections between geography and the development of city-states in the region of the Aegean Sea, including patterns of trade and commerce among Greek city-states and within the wider Mediterranean region.

    • 6.4.2. Performance Standard:

      Trace the transition from tyranny and oligarchy to early democratic forms of government and back to dictatorship in ancient Greece, including the significance of the invention of the idea of citizenship (e.g., from Pericles' Funeral Oration).

    • 6.4.3. Performance Standard:

      State the key differences between Athenian, or direct, democracy and representative democracy.

    • 6.4.4. Performance Standard:

      Explain the significance of Greek mythology to the everyday life of people in the region and how Greek literature continues to permeate our literature and language today, drawing from Greek mythology and epics, such as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, and from Aesop's Fables.

    • 6.4.5. Performance Standard:

      Outline the founding, expansion, and political organization of the Persian Empire.

    • 6.4.6. Performance Standard:

      Compare and contrast life in Athens and Sparta, with emphasis on their roles in the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.

    • 6.4.7. Performance Standard:

      Trace the rise of Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture eastward and into Egypt.

    • 6.4.8. Performance Standard:

      Describe the enduring contributions of important Greek figures in the arts and sciences (e.g., Hypatia, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Thucydides).

  • CA.6.5. Content Standard: World History and Geography

    Ancient Civilizations: Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of India.

    • 6.5.1. Performance Standard:

      Locate and describe the major river system and discuss the physical setting that sup-ported the rise of this civilization.

    • 6.5.2. Performance Standard:

      Discuss the significance of the Aryan invasions.

    • 6.5.3. Performance Standard:

      Explain the major beliefs and practices of Brahmanism in India and how they evolved into early Hinduism.

    • 6.5.4. Performance Standard:

      Outline the social structure of the caste system.

    • 6.5.5. Performance Standard:

      Know the life and moral teachings of Buddha and how Buddhism spread in India, Ceylon, and Central Asia.

    • 6.5.6. Performance Standard:

      Describe the growth of the Maurya empire and the political and moral achievements of the emperor Asoka.

    • 6.5.7. Performance Standard:

      Discuss important aesthetic and intellectual traditions (e.g., Sanskrit literature, including the Bhagavad Gita; medicine; metallurgy; and mathematics, including Hindu-Arabic numerals and the zero).

  • CA.6.6. Content Standard: World History and Geography

    Ancient Civilizations: Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of China.

    • 6.6.1. Performance Standard:

      Locate and describe the origins of Chinese civilization in the Huang-He Valley during the Shang Dynasty.

    • 6.6.2. Performance Standard:

      Explain the geographic features of China that made governance and the spread of ideas and goods difficult and served to isolate the country from the rest of the world.

    • 6.6.3. Performance Standard:

      Know about the life of Confucius and the fundamental teachings of Confucianism and Taoism.

    • 6.6.4. Performance Standard:

      Identify the political and cultural problems prevalent in the time of Confucius and how he sought to solve them.

    • 6.6.5. Performance Standard:

      List the policies and achievements of the emperor Shi Huangdi in unifying northern China under the Qin Dynasty.

    • 6.6.6. Performance Standard:

      Detail the political contributions of the Han Dynasty to the development of the imperial bureaucratic state and the expansion of the empire.

    • 6.6.7. Performance Standard:

      Cite the significance of the trans-Eurasian 'silk roads' in the period of the Han Dynasty and Roman Empire and their locations.

    • 6.6.8. Performance Standard:

      Describe the diffusion of Buddhism northward to China during the Han Dynasty.

  • CA.6.7. Content Standard: World History and Geography

    Ancient Civilizations: Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures during the development of Rome.

    • 6.7.1. Performance Standard:

      Identify the location and describe the rise of the Roman Republic, including the importance of such mythical and historical figures as Aeneas, Romulus and Remus, Cincinnatus, Julius Caesar, and Cicero.

    • 6.7.2. Performance Standard:

      Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its significance (e.g., written constitution and tripartite government, checks and balances, civic duty).

    • 6.7.3. Performance Standard:

      Identify the location of and the political and geographic reasons for the growth of Roman territories and expansion of the empire, including how the empire fostered economic growth through the use of currency and trade routes.

    • 6.7.4. Performance Standard:

      Discuss the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome's transition from republic to empire.

    • 6.7.5. Performance Standard:

      Trace the migration of Jews around the Mediterranean region and the effects of their conflict with the Romans, including the Romans' restrictions on their right to live in Jerusalem.

    • 6.7.6. Performance Standard:

      Note the origins of Christianity in the Jewish Messianic prophecies, the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament, and the contribution of St. Paul the Apostle to the definition and spread of Christian beliefs (e.g., belief in the Trinity, resurrection, salvation).

    • 6.7.7. Performance Standard:

      Describe the circumstances that led to the spread of Christianity in Europe and other Roman territories.

    • 6.7.8. Performance Standard:

      Discuss the legacies of Roman art and architecture, technology and science, literature, language, and law.

  • CA.6-8.HSS Content Standard: Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills

    The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, the content standards for grades six through eight. They are to be assessed only in conjunction with the content standards in grades six through eight. In addition to the standards for grades six through eight, students demonstrate the following intellectual reasoning, reflection, and research skills.

    • 6-8.CST. Performance Standard:

      Chronological and Spatial Thinking

      • 6-8.1. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.

      • 6-8.2. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying.

      • 6-8.3. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.

    • 6-8.REP. Performance Standard:

      Research, Evidence, and Point

      • 6-8.1. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

      • 6-8.2. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories.

      • 6-8.3. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifiable from unverifiable information in historical narratives and stories.

      • 6-8.4. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them.

      • 6-8.5. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author's perspectives).

    • 6-8.HI. Performance Standard:

      Historical Interpretation

      • 6-8.1. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.

      • 6-8.2. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations.

      • 6-8.3. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.

      • 6-8.4. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.

      • 6-8.5. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.

      • 6-8.6. Grade Level Expectation:

        Students interpret basic indicators of economic performance and conduct cost-benefit analyses of economic and political issues.

 
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