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Arizona: 8th-Grade Standards

AZ.SS08-S1 Strand: American History

  • SS08-S1C1. Concept / Standard: Research Skills for History

    Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information.

    • SS08-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Construct charts, graphs, and narratives using historical data.

    • SS08-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Interpret historical data displayed in graphs, tables, and charts.

    • SS08-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Construct timelines (e.g., presidents/world leaders, key events, people) of the historical era being studied.

    • SS08-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

    • SS08-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the difference between a primary source document and a secondary source document and the relationships between them.

    • SS08-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Determine the credibility and bias of primary and secondary sources

    • SS08-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Analyze cause and effect relationships between and among individuals and/or historical events.

    • SS08-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Analyze two points of view on the same historical event.

  • SS08-S1C2. Concept / Standard:

    Early Civilizations

    • SS08-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS08-S1C3. Concept / Standard:

    Exploration and Colonization

    • SS08-S1C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS08-S1C4. Concept / Standard: Revolution and New Nation 1700s - 1820

    The development of American constitutional democracy grew from political, cultural and economic issues, ideas and event.

    • SS08-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Analyze the following events which led to the American Revolution

      a) Tea Act; b) Stamp Act; c) Boston Massacre; d) Intolerable Acts; e) Declaration of Independence.

    • SS08-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the significance of key events of the Revolutionary War

      a) major battles (e.g., Lexington, Saratoga, Trenton); b) aid from France; c) surrender at Yorktown.

    • SS08-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the impact of the following key individuals on the Revolutionary War

      a) Benjamin Franklin; b) Thomas Jefferson; c) George Washington; d) Patrick Henry; e) Thomas Paine; f) King George III.

    • SS08-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the significance of the following documents

      a) Declaration of Independence; b) Articles of Confederation; c) Constitution; d) Bill of Rights.

    • SS08-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Explain the influence of the following individuals in the establishment of a new government

      a) Thomas Jefferson; b) James Madison; c) John Adams; d) Benjamin Franklin.

    • SS08-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe how one nation evolved from thirteen colonies

      a) Constitutional Convention; b) George Washington's presidency; c) creation of political parties (e.g., Federalists, Whigs, Democratic-Republicans).

  • SS08-S1C5. Concept / Standard:

    Westward Expansion

    • SS08-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS08-S1C6. Concept / Standard:

    Civil War and Reconstruction

    • SS08-S1C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS08-S1C7. Concept / Standard:

    Emergence of the Modern United States

    • SS08-S1C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS08-S1C8. Concept / Standard: Great Depression and World War II 1929 - 1945

    Domestic and world events, economic issues, and political conflicts redefined the role of government in the lives of U.S. citizens.

    • SS08-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Review the impact of the Great Depression on the United States.

    • SS08-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Explain how Pearl Harbor led to United States involvement in World War II.

    • SS08-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Explain the impact of World War II on economic recovery from the Great Depression.

    • SS08-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Explain how the following factors affected the U.S. home front during World War II

      a) war bond drives; b) war industry; c) women and minorities in the work force; d) rationing; e) internment of Japanese-, German-, and Italian -Americans.

    • SS08-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe Arizona's contributions to the war effort

      a) Native American Code Talkers; b) Ira Hayes; c) mining; d) training bases; e) POW and internment camps.

    • SS08-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Summarize the United States' role in the following events

      a) D-day invasion; b) battles of the Pacific; c) development and use of the atomic bomb; d) V-E Day /V-J Day.

    • SS08-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Analyze the following individuals' significance to World War II

      a) Franklin D. Roosevelt; b) Dwight Eisenhower; c) George Patton; d) Douglas MacArthur; e) Harry Truman; f) Eleanor Roosevelt.

  • SS08-S1C9. Concept / Standard: Postwar United States 1945 - 1970s

    Postwar tensions led to social change in the U.S. and to a heightened focus on foreign policy.

    • SS08-S1C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the following origins of the Cold War

      a) Western fear of communist expansion; b) Soviet fear of capitalist influences; c) development of nuclear weapons; e) Truman Doctrine.

    • SS08-S1C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the impact of the Cold War on the United States

      a) McCarthyism; b) arms race; c) space race; d) Cuban Missile Crisis; e) creation of the CIA.

    • SS08-S1C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Identify the role of the United States in the Korean War

      a) Communist containment; b) military involvement; c) resolution of conflict.

    • SS08-S1C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Identify the role of the United States in the Vietnam Conflict

      a) containment of Communism - Domino Theory; b) Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; c) Tet Offensive; d) anti-war protests; e) Vietnam Peace Accords.

    • SS08-S1C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe life (e.g., transportation, communication, technology, medical, entertainment, growth of suburbs) in the U.S. during the Post War period.

    • SS08-S1C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the importance of the following civil rights issues and events

      a) Jim Crow Laws; b) nonviolent protests; c) desegregation; d) Civil Rights Act of 1964; e) Voting Rights Act of 1965.

  • SS08-S1C10 Concept / Standard: Contemporary United States 1970s - Present

    Current events and issues continue to shape our nation and our involvement in the global community.

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe events (e.g., opening of foreign relations with China, Watergate, resignation) of the presidency of Richard Nixon.

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe events (e.g., succession to presidency, pardoning of Nixon) of the presidency of Gerald Ford.

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe events (e.g., Camp David Peace Accords, Iran Hostage Crisis) of the presidency of Jimmy Carter.

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe events (e.g., Star Wars, Iran-Contra Affair) of the presidency of Ronald Reagan.

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe events (e.g., Persian Gulf War, Berlin Wall falls) of the presidency of George H.W. Bush.

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe events (e.g., economic growth, impeachment) of the presidency of William Clinton.

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe events (e.g., September 11 Terrorist Attacks, Afghanistan, Iraq War) of the presidency of George W. Bush.

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Identify the connection between current and historical events and issues studied at this grade level using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

    • SS08-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe how key political, social, geographic, and economic events of the late 20th century and early 21st century affected, and continue to affect, the United States.

  • AZ.SS08-S2 Strand: World History

    • SS08-S2C1. Concept / Standard: Research Skills for History

      Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues.

      • SS08-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct charts, graphs and narratives using historical data.

      • SS08-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Interpret historical data displayed in graphs, tables, and charts.

      • SS08-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct timelines (e.g., presidents/world leaders, key events, people) of the historical era being studied.

      • SS08-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

      • SS08-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the difference between a primary source document and a secondary source document and the relationships between them.

      • SS08-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Determine the credibility and bias of primary and secondary sources

      • SS08-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze cause and effect relationships between and among individuals and/or historical events.

      • SS08-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze two points of view on the same historical event.

    • SS08-S2C2. Concept / Standard:

      Early Civilizations

      • SS08-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS08-S2C3. Concept / Standard:

      World in Transition

      • SS08-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS08-S2C4. Concept / Standard:

      Renaissance and Reformation

      • SS08-S2C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS08-S2C5. Concept / Standard:

      Encounters and Exchange

      • SS08-S2C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS08-S2C6. Concept / Standard:

      Age of Revolution

      • SS08-S2C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS08-S2C7. Concept / Standard:

      Age of Imperialism

      • SS08-S2C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS08-S2C8. Concept / Standard: World at War

      Global events, economic issues and political ideologies ignited tensions leading to worldwide military conflagrations and diplomatic confrontations in a context of development and change.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Review the rise of totalitarianism in Europe following World War I.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Analyze the major causes of World War II

        a) aggressive search for resources by Japan; b) political ideologies of Fascism and Nazism; c) resentment toward the Treaty of Versailles.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Trace the series of invasions and conquests in the European and Pacific Theaters in World War II.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the following events leading to the Allied victory

        a) D-Day Invasion; b) Battle of the Bulge; c) Japanese defeat in Iwo Jima and Okinawa; d) atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how racism and intolerance contributed to the Holocaust.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Summarize each of the following outcomes of World War II

        a) redrawing of political boundaries in Europe; b) tensions leading to Cold War; c) formation of the United Nations; d) beginning of atomic age; e) rebuilding of Japan.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare the rebuilding of Japan with the rebuilding of Germany following World War II.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the following events resulting from World War II

        a) Nuremburg Trial; b) Marshall Plan; c) NATO /Warsaw Pact; d) creation of United Nations; e) creation of Israel.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the spread of Communism after World War II

        a) China - Mao Tse-tung and Chinese Revolution; b) Korea - 38th parallel and division of country; c) Cuba - Fidel Castro and Cuban Missile Crisis; d) Vietnam - Ho Chi Minh.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of the Cold War (i.e., creation of the Iron Curtain, arms race, space race) that led to global competition.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the following events of the Korean War

        a) Chinese involvement; b) U.N. police actions; c) containment of Communism; d) partition of Korea at the 38th Parallel.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe how the following impacted the Vietnam War

        a) historical relationship of China and Vietnam; b) French Indochina War; c) containment of Communism; d) Ho Chi Minh Trail; e) conflict resolution.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Examine the fall of Communism and the unification of European nations

        a) Germany - reunification, Berlin Wall torn down; b) Russia - Gorbachev, Glasnost and Perestroika; c) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics - countries regained independence; d) European Union formed.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the following events in the Middle East during the 20th and 21st centuries

        a) creation of Israel; b) conflicts between Israeli and Palestinian governments; c) Camp David Peace Treaty; d) Persian Gulf War; e) Iraq War.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare independence movements in various parts of the world (e.g., India/Pakistan, Latin America, Africa, Asia) during the 20th century.

      • SS08-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Examine human rights issues during the 20th century (e.g., Apartheid, genocide, famine, disease).

    • SS08-S2C9. Concept / Standard: Contemporary World

      The nations of the contemporary world are shaped by their cultural and political past. Current events, developments and issues continue to shape the global community.

      • SS08-S2C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

      • SS08-S2C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the connection between current and historical events and issues studied at this grade level using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

      • SS08-S2C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze how world events of the late 20th century and early 21st century affected, and continue to affect, the social, political, geographic, and economic climate of the world (e.g., terrorism, globalization, conflicts, interdependence, natural disasters, advancements in science and technology and environmental issues).

  • AZ.SS08-S3 Strand: Civics/Government

    • SS08-S3C1. Concept / Standard: Foundations of Government

      The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people and documents.

      • SS08-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe how the following philosophies and documents influenced the creation of the Constitution

        a) Magna Carta; b) English Bill of Rights; c) Montesquieu's separation of power; d) John Locke's theories - natural law, social contract; e) Mayflower Compact; f) Declaration of Independence; g) Articles of Confederation.

      • SS08-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze the purpose (e.g., weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation) and outcome (e.g., compromises) of the Constitutional Convention.

      • SS08-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze the struggle (e.g., Federalists' Papers, Bill of Rights) between the federalists and the anti-federalists over the ratification of the Constitution.

    • SS08-S3C2. Concept / Standard: Structure of Government

      The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers.

      • SS08-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the following principles on which the Constitution (as the Supreme Law of the Land) was founded

        a) federalism (i.e., enumerated, reserved, and concurrent powers); b) popular sovereignty; c) Separation of Powers; d) checks and balances; e) limited government; f) flexibility (i.e., Elastic Clause, amendment process).

      • SS08-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Differentiate the roles and powers of the three branches of the federal government.

      • SS08-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain the electoral process (e.g., primary and general elections, electoral college).

      • SS08-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how a candidate can be elected president (e.g., Adams-Jackson, Hayes-Tilden, Bush-Gore) without receiving a majority of popular vote.

      • SS08-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the line of succession to the presidency as stated in the 25th Amendment.

    • SS08-S3C3. Concept / Standard: Functions of Government

      Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people.

      • SS08-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Compare the ways the federal and Arizona governments operate

        a) three branches; b) Constitution; c) election process (e.g., congressional and legislative districts, propositions, voter registration).

      • SS08-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare the process of how a bill becomes a law at the federal and state level.

      • SS08-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the following forms of direct democracy in Arizona

        a) initiative; b) referendum; c) recall process.

      • SS08-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare the roles and relationships of different levels of government (e.g., federal, state, county, city/town, tribal).

      • SS08-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the significance of the Amendments to the Constitution.

      • SS08-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems.

      • SS08-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Summarize the significance of the following Supreme Court cases

        a) Marbury v. Madison; b) Plessy v. Ferguson; c) Brown v. Board of Education; d) Gideon v. Wainright; e) Miranda v. Arizona; f) Korematsu v. United States.

      • SS08-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the impact of the following executive orders and decisions

        a) Executive Order 9066 - creation of internment camps on U.S. soil; b) Manhattan Project; c) use of Atomic Bomb.

      • SS08-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the impact that the following Acts had on increasing the rights of groups and individuals

        a) Civil Rights Act of 1964; b) Voting Rights Act of 1965; c) Indian Rights Act of 1968; d) Americans with Disabilities Act.

    • SS08-S3C4. Concept / Standard: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship

      The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation's history.

      • SS08-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the benefits of community service.

      • SS08-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss the character traits (e.g., respect, responsibility, fairness, involvement) that are important to the preservation and improvement of constitutional democracy in the United States

      • SS08-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (i.e., voting, student government, involvement in political decision making, analyzing issues, petitioning public officials).

      • SS08-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Explain the obligations and responsibilities of citizenship

        a) upholding the Constitution; b) obeying the law; c) paying taxes; d) registering for selective service; e) jury duty.

      • SS08-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the impact that the following had on rights for individuals and groups

        a) Jim Crow Laws - literacy test, poll taxes, Grandfather Clause; b) Civil Rights Movement (i.e., Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks); c) desegregation - military, schools, transportation, sports; d) United Farm Workers (i.e., Cesar Chavez); e) National Organization for Women (NOW) - Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).

    • SS08-S3C5. Concept / Standard: Government Systems of the World

      Different governmental systems exist throughout the world. The United States influences and is influenced by global interactions.

      • SS08-S3C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Compare the different world governments and ideologies

        a) dictatorship; b) totalitarian (fascist, Nazis); c) democracy; d) Socialism; e) Communism.

      • SS08-S3C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Explain U.S. and world foreign policies leading to the Cold War

        a) Truman Doctrine; b) NATO; c) Warsaw Pact; d) Marshall Plan.

      • SS08-S3C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify U.S. and world foreign policies (e.g., economic sanctions, arms reduction agreements) resulting from the Cold War.

  • AZ.SS08-S4 Strand: Geography

    • SS08-S4C1. Concept / Standard: The World in Spatial Terms

      The spatial perspective and associated geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places and environments.

      • SS08-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct maps, charts, and graphs to display geographic information.

      • SS08-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify purposes and differences of maps, globes, aerial photographs, charts, and satellite images.

      • SS08-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Interpret maps, charts, and geographic databases using geographic information.

      • SS08-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Locate physical and cultural features (e.g., continents, cities, countries, bodies of water, landforms, mountain ranges, climate zones) throughout the world.

      • SS08-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Interpret thematic maps, graphs, charts, and databases depicting various aspects of the United States and world regions. (Apply to regions studied.)

    • SS08-S4C2. Concept / Standard: Places and Regions

      Places and regions have distinct physical and cultural characteristics.

      • SS08-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify common characteristics of contemporary and historical regions on the basis of climate, landforms, ecosystems, and culture.

      • SS08-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain the factors that contribute to political and social change in various world regions (e.g., USSR/Russia, Israel, European Union, China, Korea, Germany).

      • SS08-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Examine relationships and interactions (e.g., Middle East Conflicts, NATO, European Union) among regions.

      • SS08-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify how the role of the media, images, and advertising influences the perception of a place.

      • SS08-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how a place changes over time.

    • SS08-S4C3. Concept / Standard: Physical Systems

      Physical processes shape the Earth and interact with plant and animal life to create, sustain, and modify ecosystems. These processes affect the distribution of resources and economic development.

      • SS08-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze risk factors of and possible solutions to chemical and biological hazards.

    • SS08-S4C4. Concept / Standard: Human Systems

      Human cultures, their nature, and distribution affect societies and the Earth.

      • SS08-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the push and pull factors (e.g., economic conditions, human rights conditions, famines, political strife/wars, natural disasters, changes in technology) that drive human migrations.

      • SS08-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the effects (e.g., economic, environmental, cultural, political) of human migrations on places and regions.

      • SS08-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the characteristics and locations of various cultures throughout the world.

      • SS08-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the factors (e.g., breakup of USSR, unification of Germany, cheap labor forces, outsourcing of services, oil industry) that influence the location, distribution and interrelationships of economic activities in different regions.

      • SS08-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how cooperation contributes to political, economic, and social organization (e.g., United Nations, European Union, NAFTA).

      • SS08-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the aspects of culture (e.g., literacy, occupations, clothing, property rights) related to beliefs and understandings that influence the economic, social, and political activities of men and women.

      • SS08-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how changes in technology, transportation, communication, and resources affect economic development.

    • SS08-S4C5. Concept / Standard: Environment and Society

      Human and environmental interactions are interdependent upon one another. Humans interact with the environment- they depend upon it, they modify it; and they adapt to it. The health and well-being of all humans depends upon an understanding of the interconnections and interdependence of human and physical systems.

      • SS08-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how (e.g., deforestation, desertification) humans modify ecosystems.

      • SS08-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe why (e.g., resources, economic livelihood) humans modify ecosystems.

      • SS08-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how changes in the natural environment can increase or diminish its capacity to support human activities.

      • SS08-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how technology positively and negatively affects the environment.

      • SS08-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze changing ideas and viewpoints on the best use of natural resources (e.g., value of oil, water use, forest management).

      • SS08-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how societies and governments plan for and respond to natural disasters (e.g., evacuation routes, changing farming techniques, warning systems).

    • SS08-S4C6. Concept / Standard: Geographic Applications

      Geographic thinking (asking and answering geographic questions) is used to understand spatial patterns of the past, the present, and to plan for the future.

      • SS08-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe ways geographic features and conditions influence history. (Connect to time periods studied as well as current events.)

      • SS08-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe ways different groups of people (i.e., Native Americans, Hispanics, retirees) create and shape the same environment.

      • SS08-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Use geographic knowledge and skills (e.g., recognizing patterns, mapping, graphing) when discussing current events.

  • AZ.SS08-S5 Strand: Economics

    • SS08-S5C1. Concept / Standard: Foundations of Economics

      The foundations of economics are the application of basic economic concepts and decision-making skills. This includes scarcity and the different methods of allocation of goods and services.

      • SS08-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how limited resources and unlimited human wants cause people to choose some things and give up others.

      • SS08-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze how scarcity, opportunity costs, and trade-offs, influence decision-making.

      • SS08-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze how individuals, governments and businesses make choices based on the availability of resources.

      • SS08-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Apply Adam Smith's ideas of a market economy to

        a) property rights; b) freedom of enterprise; c) competition; d) consumer choice; e) limited role of government.

      • SS08-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of the availability and distribution of natural resources on an economy.

    • SS08-S5C2. Concept / Standard: Microeconomics

      Microeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices relating to individuals, markets and industries, and governmental policies.

      • SS08-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the functions and relationships among various institutions (e.g., business firms, banks, government agencies, labor unions, corporations) that make up an economic system.

      • SS08-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Explain the impact of government investment in human capital

        a) health (e.g., immunizations); b) education (e.g., college grants, loans); c) training of people (e.g., Job Corps).

      • SS08-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain the impact of government investment in physical capital (e.g., NASA, transportation).

      • SS08-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how income for most people is determined by the value of the goods and services they sell.

      • SS08-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of entrepreneurs (e.g., Bill Gates, Martha Stewart, Oprah Winfrey, Ted Turner Donald Trump) in the free enterprise system.

      • SS08-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze how investment in physical capital (e.g., factories, medical advancements, new technologies) leads to economic growth.

      • SS08-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how competition (e.g., Microsoft/Apple, Wal-Mart/Target) affects supply and demand from the vantage point of the consumer and producer.

      • SS08-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how market prices provide incentives to buyers and sellers.

      • SS08-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how protection of private property rights provides incentives to conserve and improve property (e.g., resale market).

    • SS08-S5C3. Concept / Standard: Macroeconomics

      Macroeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices made at a societal level and how those choices affect overall economic well being.

      • SS08-S5C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the organization and functions of the Federal Reserve System.

      • SS08-S5C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the effects of inflation on society.

      • SS08-S5C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze the government's role in economic recovery.

    • SS08-S5C4. Concept / Standard: Global Economics

      Patterns of global interaction and economic development vary due to different economic systems and institutions that exist throughout the world.

      • SS08-S5C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare how private property rights differ in market (capitalism) economies versus command (communist) economies.

      • SS08-S5C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the effects of trade restrictions between national and world regions.

      • SS08-S5C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the role of the United States government in influencing international commerce in regions studied.

      • SS08-S5C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify interdependence (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement, European Union, International Monetary Fund/World Bank) between nations.

    • SS08-S5C5. Concept / Standard: Personal Finance

      Decision-making skills foster a person's individual standard of living. Using information wisely leads to better informed decisions as consumers, workers, investors and effective participants in society.

      • SS08-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how scarcity influences personal financial choices (e.g., budgeting, saving, investing, credit).

      • SS08-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe types of personal investments (e.g., saving accounts, stocks, mutual funds, bonds, retirement funds, land).

      • SS08-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the role of the stock market in personal investing.

      • SS08-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe various forms of credit. (e.g., personal loans, credit cards, lines of credit, mortgages, auto loans).

      • SS08-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze the, advantages, disadvantages, and alternatives to consumer credit.

      • SS08-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Analyze the costs and benefits of producing a personal budget.

      • SS08-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Create a personal budget to include fixed and variable expenses.

      • SS08-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the benefits of future financial planning.

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