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Arizona: 4th-Grade Standards

AZ.SS04-S1 Strand: American History

  • SS04-S1C1. Concept / Standard: Research Skills for History

    Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information.

    • SS04-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Use the following to interpret historical data

      a) timelines - B.C.E. and B.C.; C.E. and A.D.; b) graphs, tables, charts, and maps.

    • SS04-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the difference between primary and secondary sources.

    • SS04-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Locate information using both primary and secondary sources.

    • SS04-S1C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.

  • SS04-S1C2. Concept / Standard: Early Civilizations Pre 1500

    The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations made significant contributions to the later development of the United States.

    • SS04-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the legacy and cultures of prehistoric people in the Americas

      a) characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies; b) development of agriculture.

    • SS04-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the cultures and contributions of the Mogollon, Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi), and Hohokam (e.g., location, agriculture, housing, arts, trade networks; adaptation and alteration of the environment).

    • SS04-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Identify other groups (e.g., Patayan, Sinagua, Salado) residing in the Southwest during this period.

    • SS04-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Identify the early civilizations (e.g., Maya, Aztec, Inca/Inka) that developed into empires in Central and South America.

    • SS04-S1C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Recognize the achievements and features (e.g., mathematics, astronomy, architecture) of the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan/Inkan civilizations.

  • SS04-S1C3. Concept / Standard: Exploration and Colonization 1500s - 1700s

    The varied causes and effects of exploration, settlement, and colonization shaped regional and national development of the U.S.

    • SS04-S1C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the reasons for early Spanish exploration of Mexico and the Southwestern region of the United States by

      a) Cabeza de Vaca; b) Estevan; c) Fray Marcos de Niza; d) Francisco Vasques de Coronado.

    • SS04-S1C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the impact of Spanish colonization on the Southwest

      a) establishment of missions and presidios; b) lifestyle changes of native people; c) contributions of Father Kino.

    • SS04-S1C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the location and cultural characteristics of Native American tribes (e.g., O'odham, Apache, Hopi) during the Spanish period.

  • SS04-S1C4. Concept / Standard:

    Revolution and New Nation

    • SS04-S1C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      No performance objectives at this grade.

  • SS04-S1C5. Concept / Standard: Westward Expansion 1800 - 1860

    Westward expansion, influenced by political, cultural, and economic factors, led to the growth and development of the U.S.

    • SS04-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Recognize the change of governance of the Southwest from Spain to Mexico as a result of the Mexican Revolution.

    • SS04-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the influence of American explorers and trappers (e.g., James O. Pattie, Kit Carson, Bill Williams) on the development of the Southwest.

    • SS04-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe events that led to Arizona becoming a possession of the United States

      a) Mexican - American War; b) Mexican Cession (Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo); c) Gadsden Purchase.

    • SS04-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the impact of Native Americans, Hispanics, and newcomers from the United States and the world on the culture of Arizona (e.g., art, language, architecture, mining, ranching).

    • SS04-S1C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the conflict of cultures that occurred between newcomers and Arizona Native Americans

      a) Indian Wars; b) Navajo Long Walk; c) formation of reservations.

  • SS04-S1C6. Concept / Standard: Civil War and Reconstruction 1850 - 1877

    Regional conflicts led to the Civil War and resulted in significant changes to American social, economic, and political structures.

    • SS04-S1C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe events in Arizona during the Civil War

      a) Battle of Picacho Peak; b) Battle of Apache Pass; c) Arizona becomes a territory.

  • SS04-S1C7. Concept / Standard: Emergence of the Modern United States 1875 - 1929

    Economic, social, and cultural changes transformed the U.S. into a world power.

    • SS04-S1C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the economic development of Arizona

      a) mining; b) ranching; c) farming and dams.

    • SS04-S1C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the advent of innovations in transportation (e.g., steamboats, freighting, stagecoaches, railroads) that helped Arizona's growth and economy.

    • SS04-S1C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Identify key individuals and groups (e.g., Charles Poston, Sharlot Hall, Buffalo Soldiers, Geronimo, George W.P. Hunt, Manuelito, Cochise) related to Arizona territorial days and early statehood.

    • SS04-S1C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Recognize that Arizona changed from a territory to a state on February 14, 1912.

    • SS04-S1C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Recognize the formation of Native American communities and reservations in Arizona (e.g., Gila River Reservation, Yaquis, Colorado River Indian Tribes).

  • SS04-S1C8. Concept / Standard: Great Depression and World War II 1929 - 1945

    Domestic and world events, economic issues, and political conflicts redefined the role of government in the lives of U.S. citizens.

    • SS04-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe changes in the lives of U.S. and Arizona residents during the Great Depression

      a) poverty; b) unemployment; c) loss of homes or businesses; d) migration.

    • SS04-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the reasons (e.g., German and Japanese aggression) for the U.S. becoming involved in World War II.

    • SS04-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the impact of World War II on Arizona (e.g., economic boost, military bases, Native American and Hispanic contributions, POW camps, relocation of Japanese Americans).

    • SS04-S1C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe how lives were affected during World War II (e.g., limited goods, women worked in factories, increased patriotism).

  • SS04-S1C9. Concept / Standard: Postwar United States 1945 - 1970s

    Postwar tensions led to social change in the U.S. and to a heightened focus on foreign policy.

    • SS04-S1C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe changes (e.g., population growth, economic growth, cultural diversity, civil rights) that took place in Arizona during the postwar era.

  • SS04-S1C10 Concept / Standard: Contemporary United States 1970s - Present

    Current events and issues continue to shape our nation and our involvement in the global community.

    • SS04-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

    • SS04-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Discuss the connections between current and historical events and issues from content studied in Strand 1 using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

    • SS04-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Describe the influence of key individuals (e.g., Sandra Day O'Connor, Carl Hayden, Ernest W. McFarland, Barry Goldwater, Cesar Chavez, John McCain) in Arizona.

    • SS04-S1C10 Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

      Discuss the contributions of diverse populations to Arizona.

  • AZ.SS04-S2 Strand: World History

    • SS04-S2C1. Concept / Standard: Research Skills for History

      Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues.

      • SS04-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Use the following to interpret historical data

        a) timelines - B.C.E. and B.C.; C.E. and A.D.; b) graphs, tables, charts, and maps.

      • SS04-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the difference between primary and secondary sources.

      • SS04-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Locate information using both primary and secondary sources.

      • SS04-S2C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.

    • SS04-S2C2. Concept / Standard:

      Early Civilizations

      • SS04-S2C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS04-S2C3. Concept / Standard: World in Transition

      People of different regions developed unique civilizations and cultural identities characterized by increased interaction, societal complexity and competition.

      • SS04-S2C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Discuss life in Europe as it existed at the time of the Aztec and Incan/Inkan empires in the Americas

        a) life in castles; b) knights traveling to new places during the Crusades; c) desire for new routes to the Indies.

    • SS04-S2C4. Concept / Standard:

      Renaissance and Reformation

      • SS04-S2C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS04-S2C5. Concept / Standard: Encounters and Exchange

      Innovations, discoveries, exploration, and colonization accelerated contact, conflict, and interconnection among societies world wide, transforming and creating nations.

      • SS04-S2C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the reasons (e.g., trade routes, gold) for Spanish and Portuguese explorations of the Americas.

      • SS04-S2C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of European explorers' encounters with the Aztec and Inca/Inka.

    • SS04-S2C6. Concept / Standard:

      Age of Revolution

      • SS04-S2C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS04-S2C7. Concept / Standard:

      Age of Imperialism

      • SS04-S2C7- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS04-S2C8. Concept / Standard:

      World at War

      • SS04-S2C8- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS04-S2C9. Concept / Standard: Contemporary World

      The nations of the contemporary world are shaped by their cultural and political past. Current events, developments and issues continue to shape the global community.

      • SS04-S2C9- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

  • AZ.SS04-S3 Strand: Civics/Government

    • SS04-S3C1. Concept / Standard: Foundations of Government

      The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people and documents.

      • SS04-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe state and national symbols and monuments that represent American democracy and values

        a) Great Seal of the United States; b) Arizona symbols (e.g., seal, flag); c) war memorials (e.g., Pearl Harbor- Arizona Memorial, WW II, Korean, and Vietnam Memorials).

      • SS04-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Identify the rights and freedoms supported by the following documents

        a) Preamble of the U.S. Constitution; b) Bill of Rights; c) Statement of Natural Rights as found in the Declaration of Independence (We hold these truths to be self evident...) (Note: Aligns to State Statute)

      • SS04-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe Arizona's transition from territory to statehood

        a) locations of capital; b) founding people; c) Arizona's constitution.

      • SS04-S3C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the varied backgrounds of people living in Arizona

        a) shared principles, goals, customs and traditions; b) diversity in one's school and community; c) benefits and challenges of a diverse population.

    • SS04-S3C2. Concept / Standard: Structure of Government

      The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers.

      • SS04-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe the three branches of state and national government

        a) Executive; b) Legislative; c) Judicial.

      • SS04-S3C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe different levels of government (e.g., local, tribal, state, national).

    • SS04-S3C3. Concept / Standard: Functions of Government

      Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people.

      • SS04-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the responsibilities of state government (e.g., making laws, enforcing laws, collecting taxes).

      • SS04-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the responsibilities (e.g., determining land use, enforcing laws, overlapping responsibilities with state government) of the local government.

      • SS04-S3C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the possible consequences of violating laws.

    • SS04-S3C4. Concept / Standard: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship

      The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation's history.

      • SS04-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss ways an individual can contribute to a school or community.

      • SS04-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify traits of character (e.g., responsibility, respect, perseverance, loyalty, integrity, involvement, justice and tolerance) that are important to the preservation and improvement of democracy.

      • SS04-S3C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (e.g., voting, campaigning, civil and community service, volunteering, jury duty).

    • SS04-S3C5. Concept / Standard:

      Government Systems of the World

      • SS04-S3C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

  • AZ.SS04-S4 Strand: Geography

    • SS04-S4C1. Concept / Standard: The World in Spatial Terms

      The spatial perspective and associated geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places and environments.

      • SS04-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Use different types of maps to solve problems (i.e., road maps -distance, resource maps-products, historical maps- boundaries, thematic map- climates).

      • SS04-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Interpret political and physical maps using the following map elements

        a) title; b) compass rose (cardinal and intermediate directions); c) symbols; d) legend; e) scale; f) road map index; g) grid (latitude and longitude).

      • SS04-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct maps using symbols to represent human and physical features.

      • SS04-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Construct charts and graphs to display geographic information.

      • SS04-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Describe characteristics of human and physical features

        a) physical - (i.e., river, lake, mountain, range, coast, sea, desert, gulf, bay, strait, plain, valley, volcanoes, isthmus, canyon, plateau, mesa, oasis, dunes); b) human - (i.e., equator, four hemispheres, city, state, country, harbor, dams, territory, county).

      • SS04-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Locate physical and human features using maps, illustrations, images, or globes

        a) physical (i.e., river, lake, mountain range, coast, sea, desert, gulf, bay, strait); b) human (i.e., equator four hemispheres, city, state, country, roads, railroads).

      • SS04-S4C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level: Locate physical and human features in Arizona using maps, illustrations, or images

        a) physical (e.g., Grand Canyon, Mogollon Rim, Colorado River, Gila River, Salt River); b) human (e.g., Phoenix, Yuma, Flagstaff, Tucson, Prescott, Hoover Dam, Roosevelt Dam).

    • SS04-S4C2. Concept / Standard: Places and Regions

      Places and regions have distinct physical and cultural characteristics.

      • SS04-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how the Southwest has distinct physical and cultural characteristics.

      • SS04-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe ways in which Arizona has changed over time from statehood to today.

      • SS04-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Locate the landform regions of Arizona (plateau, mountain, desert) on a map.

      • SS04-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Compare the landform regions of Arizona according to their physical features, plants, and animals.

      • SS04-S4C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how regions and places (e.g., Grand Canyon, Colorado River, Casa Grande Ruin, Canyon de Chelly, Yucatan Peninsula) have distinct characteristics.

    • SS04-S4C3. Concept / Standard: Physical Systems

      Physical processes shape the Earth and interact with plant and animal life to create, sustain, and modify ecosystems. These processes affect the distribution of resources and economic development.

      • SS04-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how natural events and human activities impact environments.

      • SS04-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe uses, types, and conservation of natural resources.

      • SS04-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Understand processes acting on the earth (erosion, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires) and evidence of their occurrence.

      • SS04-S4C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Understand characteristics of weather conditions and climate.

    • SS04-S4C4. Concept / Standard: Human Systems

      Human cultures, their nature, and distribution affect societies and the Earth.

      • SS04-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the factors (push and pull) that have contributed to the settlement, economic development (e.g., mining, ranching, agriculture, and tourism), and growth of major Arizona cities.

      • SS04-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how Mexico and Arizona are connected by the movement of people, goods, and ideas.

      • SS04-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how the building of transportation routes (e.g., trails, stage routes, railroad) resulted in human settlement and economic development in Arizona.

      • SS04-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the cultural characteristics (e.g., food, clothing, housing, sports, customs, beliefs) of Arizona's diverse population.

      • SS04-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the major economic activities and land use patterns (e.g., agricultural, industrial, residential, commercial, recreational, harvesting of natural resources) of regions studied.

      • SS04-S4C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe elements of culture in areas studied (e.g., Mexico, Central and South America).

    • SS04-S4C5. Concept / Standard: Environment and Society

      Human and environmental interactions are interdependent upon one another. Humans interact with the environment- they depend upon it, they modify it; and they adapt to it. The health and well-being of all humans depends upon an understanding of the interconnections and interdependence of human and physical systems.

      • SS04-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe human dependence on the physical environment and natural resources to satisfy basic needs.

      • SS04-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of extreme natural events (e.g., fires, volcanoes, floods, droughts) on human and physical environments.

      • SS04-S4C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of human modifications (e.g., dams, mining, air conditioning, irrigation, agricultural) on the physical environment and ecosystems.

    • SS04-S4C6. Concept / Standard: Geographic Applications

      Geographic thinking (asking and answering geographic questions) is used to understand spatial patterns of the past, the present, and to plan for the future.

      • SS04-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe the impact of geographic features (e.g., rivers, mountains, resources, deserts, climate) on migration and the location of human activities (e.g., exploration, mining, transportation routes, settlement patterns).

      • SS04-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss geographic knowledge and skills related to current events.

      • SS04-S4C6- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Use geography concepts and skills (e.g., recognizing patterns, mapping, graphing) to find solutions for local, state or national problems (e.g., shortage or abundance of natural resources).

  • AZ.SS04-S5 Strand: Economics

    • SS04-S5C1. Concept / Standard: Foundations of Economics

      The foundations of economics are the application of basic economic concepts and decision-making skills. This includes scarcity and the different methods of allocation of goods and services.

      • SS04-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain the decision for a personal spending choice.

      • SS04-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify that specialization improves standards of living (e.g., medical care, home building, agriculture).

      • SS04-S5C1- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Give examples of how voluntary exchanges of goods and services can be mutually beneficial (e.g., ice cream vendor receives money, child receives ice cream; doctor receives monetary benefit, patient receives care).

    • SS04-S5C2. Concept / Standard: Microeconomics

      Microeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices relating to individuals, markets and industries, and governmental policies.

      • SS04-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Explain how price incentives affect peoples' behavior and choices, such as colonial decisions about what crops to grow and which products to produce.

      • SS04-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe why (e.g., schools, fire, police, libraries) state and local governments collect taxes.

      • SS04-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how education, skills, and career choices affect income.

      • SS04-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Discuss how profit is an incentive to entrepreneurs.

      • SS04-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe risks that are taken by entrepreneurs.

      • SS04-S5C2- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Identify the role of financial institutions in providing services (e.g., savings accounts, loans).

    • SS04-S5C3. Concept / Standard:

      Macroeconomics

      • SS04-S5C3- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS04-S5C4. Concept / Standard:

      Global Economics

      • SS04-S5C4- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        No performance objectives at this grade.

    • SS04-S5C5. Concept / Standard: Personal Finance

      Decision-making skills foster a person's individual standard of living. Using information wisely leads to better informed decisions as consumers, workers, investors and effective participants in society.

      • SS04-S5C5- Performance Objective / Proficiency Level:

        Describe how interest is an incentive to saving money.

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