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Alabama: 9th-Grade Standards

AL.9 Standard: World History—1500 to the Present

At the ninth-grade level, students continue the study of world history from 1500 to the present. Through historical inquiry, students gain an understanding and appreciation of history as a story of people much like themselves and become increasingly able to understand global interdependence and connections among world societies.


  • 9.1. Students will:

    Describe developments in Italy and Northern Europe during the Renaissance period with respect to humanism, arts and literature, intellectual development, increased trade, and advances in technology.(History)


  • 9.2.1 Students will:

    Describe the role of mercantilism and imperialism in European exploration and colonization in the sixteenth century, including the Columbian Exchange. (Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government)

  • 9.2.2 Students will practice:

    • Describing the impact of the Commercial Revolution on European society
    • Identifying major ocean currents, wind patterns, landforms, and climates affecting European exploration
      • Grade Level Example:

        marking ocean currents and wind patterns on a map


  • 9.3. Students will:

    Explain causes of the Reformation and its impact, including tensions between religious and secular authorities, reformers and doctrines, the Counter-Reformation, the English Reformation, and wars of religion. (History)


  • 9.4.1 Students will:

    Explain the relationship between physical geography and cultural development in India, Africa, Japan, and China in the early Global Age, including trade and travel, natural resources, and movement and isolation of peoples and ideas. (Economics, Geography, History)

  • 9.4.2 Students will practice:

    • Depicting the general location of, size of, and distance between regions in the early Global Age
      • Grade Level Example:

        drawing sketch maps


  • 9.5.1 Students will:

    Describe the rise of absolutism and constitutionalism and their impact on European nations. (Civics and Government)

  • 9.5.2 Students will practice:

    • Contrasting philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke and the belief in the divine right of kings
    • Comparing absolutism as it developed in France, Russia, and Prussia, including the reigns of Louis XIV, Peter the Great, and Frederick the Great
    • Identifying major provisions of the Petition of Rights and the English Bill of Rights


  • 9.6. Students will:

    Identify significant ideas and achievements of scientists and philosophers of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment. (History)

    • Grade Level Example:

      Scientific Revolution—astronomical theories of Copernicus and Galileo, Newton’s law of gravity
      Age of Enlightenment—philosophies of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau


  • 9.7.1 Students will:

    Describe the impact of the French Revolution on Europe, including political evolution, social evolution, and diffusion of nationalism and liberalism. (Geography, History, Civics and Government)

  • 9.7.2 Students will practice:

    • Identifying causes of the French Revolution
    • Describing the influence of the American Revolution upon the French Revolution
    • Identifying objectives of different groups participating in the French Revolution
    • Describing the role of Napoleon as an empire builder


  • 9.8. Students will:

    Compare revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean, including Haiti, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. (Geography, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      Identifying the location of countries in Latin America


  • 9.9.1 Students will:

    Describe the impact of technological inventions, conditions of labor, and the economic theories of capitalism, liberalism, socialism, and Marxism during the Industrial Revolution on the economics, society, and politics of Europe. (Economics, History, Civics and Government)

  • 9.9.2 Students will practice:

    • Identifying important inventors in Europe during the Industrial Revolution
    • Comparing the Industrial Revolution in England with later revolutions in Europe


  • 9.10.1 Students will:

    Describe the influence of urbanization during the nineteenth century on the Western World. (Geography, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      interaction with the environment, provisions for public health, increased opportunities for upward mobility, changes in social stratification, development of Romanticism and Realism, development of Impressionism and Cubism

  • 9.10.2 Students will practice:

    • Describing the search for political democracy and social justice in the Western World
      • Grade Level Example:

        European Revolution of 1848, slavery and emancipation in the United States, emancipation of serfs in Russia, universal manhood suffrage, women’s suffrage


  • 9.11.1. Students will:

    Describe the impact of European nationalism and Western imperialism as forces of global transformation, including the unification of Italy and Germany, the rise of Japan’s power in East Asia, economic roots of imperialism, imperialist ideology, colonialism and national rivalries, and United States imperialism. (Economics, History, Civics and Government)

  • 9.11.2 Students will practice:

    • Describing resistance to European imperialism in Africa, Japan, and China


  • 9.12.1 Students will:

    Explain causes and consequences of World War I, including imperialism, militarism, nationalism, and the alliance system. (Geography, History, Civics and Government)

  • 9.12.2 Students will practice:

    • Describing the rise of Communism in Russia during World War I
      • Grade Level Example:

        return of Vladimir Lenin, rise of Bolsheviks

    • Describing military technology used during World War I
    • Identifying problems created by the Treaty of Versailles of 1919
      • Grade Level Example:

        Germany’s reparations and war guilt, international controversy over the League of Nations

    • Identifying alliances during World War I and boundary changes after World War I


  • 9.13.1 Students will:

    Explain challenges of the post-World War I period. (Economics, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      1920s cultural disillusionment, colonial rebellion and turmoil in Ireland and India, attempts to achieve political stability in Europe

  • 9.13.2 Students will practice:

    • Identifying causes of the Great Depression
    • Characterizing the global impact of the Great Depression


  • 9.14.1 Students will:

    Describe causes and consequences of World War II. (Geography, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      causes—unanswered aggression, Axis goal of world conquest
      consequences—changes in political boundaries; Allied goals; lasting issues such as the Holocaust, Atomic Age, and Nuremberg Trials

  • 9.14.2 Students will practice:

    • Explaining the rise of militarist and totalitarian states in Italy, Germany, the Soviet Union, and Japan
    • Identifying turning points of World War II in the European and Pacific Theaters
    • Depicting geographic locations of world events between 1939 and 1945
    • Identifying on a map changes in national borders as a result of World War II


  • 9.15.1 Students will:

    Describe post-World War II realignment and reconstruction in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, including the end of colonial empires. (History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      reconstruction of Japan; nationalism in India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Africa; Chinese Communist Revolution; creation of Jewish state of Israel; Cuban Revolution; Central American conflicts

  • 9.15.2 Students will practice:

    • Explaining origins of the Cold War
      • Grade Level Example:

        Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, ―Iron Curtain,‖ Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Warsaw Pact

    • Tracing the progression of the Cold War
      • Grade Level Example:

        nuclear weapons, European power struggles, Korean War, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War


  • 9.16.1 Students will:

    Describe the role of nationalism, militarism, and civil war in today’s world, including the use of terrorism and modern weapons at the close of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first centuries.(Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government)

  • 9.16.2 Students will practice:

    • Describing the collapse of the Soviet Empire and Russia’s struggle for democracy, free markets, and economic recovery and the roles of Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, and Boris Yeltsin
      • Grade Level Example:

        economic failures, demands for national and human rights, resistance from Eastern Europe, reunification of Germany

    • Describing effects of internal conflict, nationalism, and enmity in South Africa, Northern Ireland, Chile, the Middle East, Somalia and Rwanda, Cambodia, and the Balkans
    • Describing effects of internal conflict, nationalism, and enmity in South Africa, Northern Ireland, Chile, the Middle East, Somalia and Rwanda, Cambodia, and the Balkans
    • Depicting geographic locations of major world events from 1945 to the present


  • 9.17.1 Students will:

    Describe emerging democracies from the late twentieth century to the present. (Economics, History, Civics and Government)

  • 9.17.2 Students will practice:

    • Discussing problems and opportunities involving science, technology, and the environment in the late twentieth century
      • Grade Level Example:

        genetic engineering, space exploration

    • Identifying problems involving civil liberties and human rights from 1945 to the present and ways they have been addressed
    • Relating economic changes to social changes in countries adopting democratic forms of government