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Alabama: 7th-Grade Standards

AL.7 Standard: Geography

In this one-semester geography course, students increase their knowledge about the physical and human nature of the world and about relationships between people and their environments. Interwoven throughout the course are the three interrelated components of geography. These components include Earth as a physical object, a physical environment, and a place in which humans live; geographic skills; and spatial and ecological perspectives.

7.1

  • 7.1.1 Students will:

    Describe the world in spatial terms using maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies. (Economics, Geography, Civics and Government)

  • 7.1.2 Students will practice:

    • Explaining the use of map essentials, including type, projections, scale, legend, distance, direction, grid, and symbols
      • Grade Level Example:

        type—reference, thematic, planimetric, topographic, globes and map projections, aerial photographs, satellite images
        direction—lines of latitude and longitude, cardinal and intermediate directions
        distance—fractional, graphic, and verbal scales

    • Identifying geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
      • Grade Level Example:

        Google Earth, Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), satellite remote sensing, aerial photography

    • Utilizing maps to explain relationships and environments among people and places, including trade patterns, governmental alliances, and immigration patterns
    • Applying mental maps to answer geographic questions, including how experiences and cultures influence perceptions and decisions
    • Categorizing the geographic organization of people, places, and environments using spatial models
      • Grade Level Example:

        urban land-use patterns, distribution and linkages of cities, migration patterns, population density patterns, spread of culture traits, spread of contagious diseases through a population

7.2

  • 7.2.1 Students will:

    Determine how regions are used to describe the organization of Earth’s surface. (Economics, Geography)

  • 7.2.2 Students will practice:

    • Identifying physical and human features used as criteria for mapping formal, functional, and perceptual regions
      • Grade Level Example:

        physical features—landforms, climates, water bodies, resources
        human features—language, religion, culture, economy, government

    • Interpreting processes and reasons for regional change, including land use, urban growth, population, natural disasters, and trade
    • Analyzing interactions among regions to show transnational relationships, including the flow of commodities and Internet connectivity
      • Grade Level Example:

        winter produce to Alabama from Chile and California, poultry from Alabama to other countries

    • Comparing how culture and experience influence individual perceptions of places and regions
      • Grade Level Example:

        cultural influences—language, religion, ethnicity, iconography, symbology, stereotypes

    • Explaining globalization and its impact on people in all regions of the world
      • Grade Level Example:

        quality and sustainability of life, international cooperation

7.3

  • 7.3.1 Students will:

    Compare geographic patterns in the environment that result from processes within the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere of Earth’s physical systems. (Geography)

  • 7.3.2 Students will practice:

    • Comparing Earth-Sun relationships regarding seasons, fall hurricanes, monsoon rainfall, and tornadoes
    • Explaining processes that shape the physical environment, including long-range effects of extreme weather phenomena
      • Grade Level Example:

        processes—plate tectonics, glaciers, ocean and atmospheric circulation, El Niño long-range
        effects—erosion on agriculture, typhoons on coastal ecosystems

    • Describing characteristics and physical processes that influence the spatial distribution of ecosystems and biomes on Earth’s surface
    • Comparing how ecosystems vary from place to place and over time
      • Grade Level Example:

        place to place—difference in soil, climate, and topography
        over time—alteration or destruction of natural habitats due to effects of floods and forest fires, reduction of species diversity due to loss of natural habitats, reduction of wetlands due to replacement by farms, reduction of forest and farmland due to replacement by housing developments, reduction of previously cleared land due to reforestation efforts

    • Comparing geographic issues in different regions that result from human and natural processes
      • Grade Level Example:

        human—increase or decrease in population, land-use change in tropical forests
        natural processes—hurricanes, tsunamis, tornadoes, floods

7.4

  • 7.4.1 Students will:

    Evaluate spatial patterns and the demographic structure of population on Earth’s surface in terms of density, dispersion, growth and mortality rates, natural increase, and doubling time. (Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      population structure—age and sex distribution using population pyramids
      special patterns—major population clusters

  • 7.4.2 Students will practice:

  • Predicting reasons and consequences of migration, including push and pull factors
    • Grade Level Example:

      push factors —politics, war, famine
      pull factors—potential jobs, family

7.5

  • 7.5. Students will:

    Explain how cultural features, traits, and diffusion help define regions, including religious structures, agricultural patterns, ethnic enclaves, ethnic restaurants, and the spread of Islam. (Economics, Geography, History)

7.6

  • 7.6.1 Students will:

    Illustrate how primary, secondary, and tertiary economic activities have specific functions and spatial patterns. (Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      primary—forestry, agriculture, mining
      secondary—manufacturing furniture, grinding coffee beans, assembling automobiles
      tertiary—selling furniture, selling coffee latte, selling automobiles

  • 7.6.2 Students will practice:

  • Comparing one location over another for production of goods and services
    • Grade Level Example:

      fast food restaurants in highly accessible locations, medical offices near hospitals, legal offices near courthouses, industries near major transportation routes

  • Analyzing the impact of economic interdependence and globalization on places and their populations
    • Grade Level Example:

      seed corn produced in Iowa and planted in South America; silicon chips manufactured in California and installed in a computer made in China that is purchased in Australia

  • Explaining why countries enter into global trade agreements, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), the European Union (EU), the Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

7.7

  • 7.7.1 Students will:

    Classify spatial patterns of settlement in different regions of the world, including types and sizes of settlement patterns. (Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      types—linear, clustered, grid
      sizes—large urban, small urban, and rural areas

  • 7.7.2 Students will practice:

    • Explaining human activities that resulted in the development of settlements at particular locations due to trade, political importance, or natural resources
      • Grade Level Example:

        Timbuktu near caravan routes; Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and Birmingham, Alabama, as manufacturing centers near coal and iron ore deposits; Singapore near a major ocean transportation corridor

    • Describing settlement patterns in association with the location of resources
      • Grade Level Example:

        fall line settlements near waterfalls used as a source of energy for mills, European industrial settlements near coal seams, spatial arrangement of towns and cities in North American Corn Belt settlements

    • Describing ways in which urban areas interact and influence surrounding regions
      • Grade Level Example:

        daily commuters from nearby regions; communication centers that service nearby and distant locations through television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet; regional specialization in services or production

7.8

  • 7.8.1 Students will:

    Determine political, military, cultural, and economic forces that contribute to cooperation and conflict among people. (Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government)

  • 7.8.2 Students will practice:

    • Identifying political boundaries based on physical and human systems
      • Grade Level Example:

        physical systems—rivers as boundaries between counties
        human systems—streets as boundaries between local government units

    • Identifying effects of cooperation among countries in controlling territories
      • Grade Level Example:

        Great Lakes environmental management by United States and Canada, United Nations (UN) Heritage sites and host countries, Antarctic Treaty on scientific research

    • Describing the eruption of territorial conflicts over borders, resources, land use, and ethnic and nationalistic identity
      • Grade Level Example:

        India and Pakistan conflict over Jammu and Kashmir, the West Bank, the Sudan, Somalia piracy, ocean fishing and mineral rights, local land-use disputes

7.9

  • 7.9. Students will:

    Explain how human actions modify the physical environment within and between places, including how human induced changes affect the environment. (Economics, Geography, History)

    • Grade Level Example:

      within places—construction of dams and downstream water availability for human consumption, agriculture, and aquatic ecosystems
      between places—urban heat islands and global climate change, desertification and land degradation, pollution and ozone depletion

7.10

  • 7.10.1 Students will:

    Explain how human systems develop in response to physical environmental conditions. (Economics, Geography, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      farming practices in different regions, including slash-and-burn agriculture, terrace farming, and center-pivot irrigation

  • 7.10.2 Students will practice:

    • Identifying types, locations, and characteristics of natural hazards, including earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and mudslides
    • Differentiating ways people prepare for and respond to natural hazards, including building storm shelters, conducting fire and tornado drills, and establishing building codes for construction

7.11

  • 7.11.1 Students will:

    Explain the cultural concept of natural resources and changes in spatial distribution, quantity, and quality through time and by location. (Economics, Geography, History)

  • 7.11.2 Students will practice:

    • Evaluating various cultural viewpoints regarding the use or value of natural resources
      • Grade Level Example:

        salt and gold as valued commodities, petroleum product use and the invention of the internal combustion engine

    • Identifying issues regarding depletion of nonrenewable resources and the sustainability of renewable resources
      • Grade Level Example:

        ocean shelf and Arctic exploration for petroleum, hybrid engines in cars, wind-powered generators, solar collection panels

7.12

  • 7.12. Students will:

    Explain geographic contexts that influenced historical events. (Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      physical features—fall line, Cumberland Gap, Westward Expansion in the United States, weather conditions at Valley Forge and the outcome of the American Revolution, role of ocean currents and winds during exploration by Christopher Columbus
      environmental issues—boundary disputes, ownership of ocean resources, revitalization of downtown areas

AL.7 Standard: Civics

Seventh grade students should be able to assume more responsibilities in their family, school, and community roles. To address this concern, students are given opportunities to apply civic knowledge to problem-based learning situations in the community and to other activities that foster increased personal responsibility.

7.1

  • 7.1. Students will:

    Compare influences of ancient Greece, the Roman Republic, the Judeo-Christian tradition, the Magna Carta, federalism, the Mayflower Compact, the English Bill of Rights, the House of Burgesses, and the Petition of Rights on the government of the United States. (History, Civics and Government)

7.2

  • 7.2. Students will:

    Explain essential characteristics of the political system of the United States, including the organization and functions of political parties and the process of selecting political leaders. (History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      Describing the influence of John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Paine, Niccolò Machiavelli, Charles de Montesquieu, and Voltaire on the political system of the United States

7.3

  • 7.3.1 Students will:

    Compare the government of the United States with other governmental systems, including monarchy, limited monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, theocracy, and pure democracy. (History, Civics and Government)

7.4

  • 7.4. Students will:

    Describe structures of state and local governments in the United States, including major Alabama offices and officeholders. (Economics, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      Describing how local and state governments are funded

7.5

  • 7.5.1 Students will:

    Compare duties and functions of members of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabama’s local and state governments and of the national government. (Economics, Geography, History)

  • 7.5.2 Students will practice:

    • Locating political and geographic districts of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabama’s local and state government and of the national government
    • Describing the organization and jurisdiction of courts at the local, state, and national levels within the judicial system of the United States
    • Explaining concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances among the three branches of state and national governments

7.6

  • 7.6.1 Students will:

    Explain the importance of juvenile, adult, civil, and criminal laws within the judicial system of the United States. (History, Civics and Government)

  • 7.6.2 Students will practice:

    • Explaining rights of citizens as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights under the Constitution of the United States
    • Explaining what is meant by the term rule of law
    • Justifying consequences of committing a civil or criminal offense
    • Contrasting juvenile and adult laws at local, state, and federal levels

7.7

  • 7.7.1 Students will:

    Determine how people organize economic systems to address basic economic questions regarding which goods and services will be produced, how they will be distributed, and who will consume them. (Economics, Geography, History)

  • 7.7.2 Students will practice:

    • Using economic concepts to explain historical and current developments and issues in global, national, or local contexts
      • Grade Level Example:

        increase in oil prices resulting from supply and demand

    • Analyzing agriculture, tourism, and urban growth in
      Alabama for their impact on economic development

7.8

  • 7.8.1 Students will:

    Appraise the relationship between the consumer and the marketplace in the economy of the United States regarding scarcity, opportunity cost, trade-off decision making, and the stock market. (Economics, History, Civics and Government)

  • 7.8.2 Students will practice:

    • Describing effects of government policies on the free market
    • Identifying laws protecting rights of consumers and avenues of recourse when those rights are violated
    • Comparing economic systems, including market, command, and traditional

7.9

  • 7.9. Students will:

    Apply principles of money management to the preparation of a personal budget that addresses housing, transportation, food, clothing, medical expenses, insurance, checking and savings accounts, loans, investments, credit, and comparison shopping. (Economics, Civics and Government)

7.10

  • 7.10.1 Students will:

    Describe individual and civic responsibilities of citizens of the United States. (History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      individual—respect for rights of others, self- discipline, negotiation, compromise, fiscal responsibility
      civic—respect for law, patriotism, participation in political process, fiscal responsibility

  • 7.10.2 Students will practice:

    • Differentiating rights, privileges, duties, and responsibilities between citizens and noncitizens
    • Explaining how United States’ citizenship is acquired by immigrants
    • Explaining character traits that are beneficial to individuals and society
      • Grade Level Example:

        honesty, courage, compassion, civility, loyalty

7.11

  • 7.11.1 Students will:

    Compare changes in social and economic conditions in the United States during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. (Economics, History, Civics and Government)

    • Grade Level Example:

      social—family values, peer pressure, education opportunities, women in the workplace
      economic—career opportunities, disposable income, change in consumption of goods and services

  • 7.11.2 Students will practice:

    • Determining benefits of Alabama’s role in world trade
    • Tracing the political and social impact of the modern Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to the present, including Alabama’s role

7.12

  • 7.12.1. Students will:

    Defend how the United States can be improved by individual and collective participation in civic and community activities. (Economics, History, Civics and Government)

  • 7.12.2 Students will practice:

    • Identifying options for civic and community action
      • Grade Level Example:

        investigating the feasibility of a specific solution to a traffic problem, developing a plan for construction of a subdivision, using maps to make and justify decisions about best locations for public facilities

    • Determining ways to participate in the political process
      • Grade Level Example:

        voting, running for office, serving on a jury, writing letters, being involved in political parties and political campaigns

7.13

  • 7.13. Students will:

    Identify contemporary American issues since 2001, including the establishment of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the enactment of the Patriot Act of 2001, and the impact of media analysis. (Civics and Government)

 
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