A popular pre-Civil War newspaper cartoon character of a crow, which represented a white Southern racist
A popular burlesque song and theatrical dance number, written about 1830 and performed by a white actor in blackface for enthusiastic crowds in the U.S. and abroad
The nickname of a Georgia State legislator, who led efforts to make it illegal for free blacks to reside in the state
In the mid-1830s, in Massachusetts and Connecticut
Immediately after the Civil War, in the cotton-growing states of the Deep South
Along the railroad lines to the far Western states in the 1870s, where passengers typically spent many days together traveling to their destinations
Rosa Parks, who refused, in 1955, to give up her seat to a white passenger on a Montgomery, AL public bus
Frederick Douglass, who refused, in 1841, to give up the first-class seat on the Eastern Railroad he took when he boarded the train at Newburyport, MA, and move to the train's Jim Crow car
Homer Plessy, who refused, in 1892, to move from the "whites only" car on the East Louisiana Railway, for which he had bought a first-class ticket, to the "coloreds only" car
Rutherford B. Hayes
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